project preparation and administration l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Project Preparation and Administration PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Project Preparation and Administration

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 88

Project Preparation and Administration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 219 Views
  • Uploaded on

Project Preparation and Administration Bridge Module Why are bridges part of this training ? Big cost. Long Process Design is complicated Tough Decisions But they are Fun! Proud crew! Trails do nothing more than connect the Bridges ! Training Focus Bridge Design Process

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Project Preparation and Administration' - ostinmannual


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
why are bridges part of this training
Why are bridges part of this training?
  • Big cost.
  • Long Process
  • Design is complicated
  • Tough Decisions

R1 Trails Project Preparation

but they are fun
But they are Fun!

Proud crew!

Trails do nothing more than connect the Bridges!

R1 Trails Project Preparation

training focus
Training Focus
  • Bridge Design Process
    • Decisions to be made.
    • How to make those decisions!

R1 Trails Project Preparation

training focus5
Training Focus
  • Northern Region Standard Trail Bridge Plans
    • Intended uses
    • Limitations, Inappropriate Uses
    • Costs
    • Maintenance
  • Wilderness Bridges
  • Helicopter Usage
  • Preservative Treatments

If there is time – NP Wilderness Bridge Project Presentation

R1 Trails Project Preparation

authorities
Authorities
  • All Decisions – Line Office
  • Approval of Bridge Design – Director of Engineering
    • Unless using Regional Standard Trail Bridge Designs – Forest Engineer.
  • All Trail Bridges need to be designed!

Bridge in Bob Marshall Wilderness

R1 Trails Project Preparation

authorities7
Authorities
  • Design Resources Available.
    • Forest Engineer
    • Regional Bridge Group
      • John Kattell
      • David Scovell
  • Our job is to provide technical assistance to Forest personnel and complete and/or approve all bridge designs.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

bridge design process
Bridge Design Process
  • Function (To bridge or not? Replace or remove?)
  • Who is User? ROS? TMO?
  • Force Account/Contract?

ProjectScope**

**Contact FE and /or RO during Project Scope

Location/Survey

  • Where is best spot?
  • Many decisions.
  • Project Funding and Scope finalized.

Preliminary Design

Final Design

  • Plans, Specs, Estimates.

Construction

  • COR

R1 Trails Project Preparation

project initiation and scope
Project Initiation and Scope
  • Function
    • To Bridge or Not to Bridge?
    • Replace or remove?
    • Preliminary Engineering needed?
  • Factors?
    • TMO & ROS
    • User Safety
    • Resource Protection
    • Others?

Funding Feasibility

Aesthetics Wilderness

Albino Trail Bridge Site - Gal

R1 Trails Project Preparation

bridge design process10
Bridge Design Process
  • In general, more complicated than road bridges. Why?
    • Defining the User
    • Location
      • Access
      • Wilderness
    • Size?

R1 Trails Project Preparation

bridge design process11
Bridge Design Process
  • Dome Mtn. On Ktn.
    • 24-foot span
    • Wilderness
    • 6-mile from TH but 4000 ft elevation gain.
    • Force Account
    • Dangerous work.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

bridge design process12
Bridge Design Process
  • Iron Springs on D-P
    • 50-foot span
    • Easy access
    • Total cost -~$35,000
    • Contract

Maah-Taah-Hey Trail

R1 Trails Project Preparation

project initiation and scope13
Project Initiation and Scope

Define the User (TMO & ROS)

    • Pedestrians
    • Stock
    • ATVs
    • Bicycles
    • Administration vehicles
    • Outfitters / other permittees
  • User affects size, design and cost.
  • Bridge many times limits the user!

R1 Trails Project Preparation

project initiation and scope14
Project Initiation and Scope
  • Force Account or Contract? (Effects design decisions!)
    • Design (in house or A/E)
      • Complexity of bridge project.
      • Availability of Forest or RO Engineers
      • Funding
      • Typically, R1 designs are done in house.
    • Construction
      • Safety
      • Force Account capability, skill level, and availability.
      • Complexity of bridge.
      • Funding
      • Pros and Cons

R1 Trails Project Preparation

force account or contract
Force Account or Contract?
  • Remote site required packing all materials.
  • Simple construction
  • NP has trained Crews.
  • Force Account

Goat Creek on NP

R1 Trails Project Preparation

force account or contract16
Force Account or Contract?
  • Bridge part of a larger trail construction project.
  • Short distance from trailhead.
  • Complicated construction
  • Contract

Yellow Mule on Gallatin

R1 Trails Project Preparation

force account or contract17
Force Account or Contract?
  • Site at trailhead.
  • Working over large water penstock and tracks.
  • Needed large equipment

Mystic on Custer

Contract

R1 Trails Project Preparation

project initiation and scope18
Project Initiation and Scope
  • Summary
    • Function (To bridge or not to bridge)
    • Define Users.
    • Force Account versus Contract
    • Funding. Project a go or no go?
    • May need some preliminary engineering this early.

Who makes these decisions?

R1 Trails Project Preparation

location survey
Location

Narrowest spot?

Not necessarily

Stable stream reach.

Where users want it!

Good trail approaches for user (function for hikers vs stock vs snomobiles vs ATV’s)

Survey - Varies

Simple small creek

Profile of trail and stream with few x-sections.

Sketches

Complex

Full site survey of area.

Geotechnical (drilling)

In general, experienced bridge engineer may get by with less.

Location / Survey

R1 Trails Project Preparation

location survey20
Location / Survey
  • Holter Cut on Btr.
  • No survey done.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

location survey21
Location / Survey
  • Little Salmon on Flathead in Bob Marshall.
  • Full site survey completed.
  • Needed for hydraulic analysis.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design
Determine

Span

Height

Width

Bridge Type

Foundations

FA or Contract

Cost

Factors

Crossing and height

Flood waters, Clearance

User

Span, location, aesthetics

Site geology

See earlier slide

All of the above.

Preliminary Design

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design23
Preliminary Design

Two biggest problems in R1

Bridges too short.

Abutments scour and fail

Resource damage

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design24
Preliminary Design

Bridges are too low!

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design25
Preliminary Design
  • Sill-Thru Configuration
    • Little work in water.
    • Hydraulically efficient. (less susceptible to scour).
    • More $ in superstructure, less in abutments.
    • No wingwalls needed.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design26
Preliminary Design
  • Vertical Wall Configuration
    • More work in water.
    • Hydraulically less efficient. (more susceptible to scour).
    • Less $ in superstructure, more in abutments.
    • Need wingwalls

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design27
Preliminary Design
  • Span Length
    • Field Estimate (Rule of Thumb) typicalspill-thru bridge.

Estimated Span Length (L) = BW + 3 x BH

      • BW – Channel bottom width
      • BH – Bridge height from channel bottom to trail tread.

BH

Span Length (L)

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design28
Preliminary Design
  • Span Length
    • Field estimate must be verified on paper.
    • Do not undersize.
      • Better to spend more on span than abutments.
    • Evaluate existing bridge (did it function OK)
    • Iterative process with what?
      • Bridge height
        • What controls bridge height?

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design29
Preliminary Design
  • What controls bridge height?
    • Trail height
    • Bridge structure depth
      • Rule of thumb 1/20 x span
    • Clearance for debris
      • Minimum 2 feet above high water (100 yr flood) to bottom of bridge.

Little Salmon on Flathead

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design30
Preliminary Design
  • Span Length – Vertical Wall abutment
    • Span Length = Bankfull +. Must be able to pass flood without damage to bridge or stream.
    • Footings must be ‘below stream bed as minimum unless on bedrock.

BH

Span Length (L)

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design31
Preliminary Design

Factors for Bridge Width

- Users

- Railing

Bridge w/o railing

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design32
Preliminary Design

Variable widths

  • Single log – 14”
  • Stock w/railing – 8’
  • Snowmobile – 16’+
  • Manual guidance but can be anything.

Bridge with railing

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design33
Preliminary Design
  • Bridge Types
    • Single Log
    • Timber stringer
    • Glu-lam stringer
    • Truss
    • Suspension
    • Packable
  • Factors

Span Access

AestheticsMaterials

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design34
Foundations

Spread footings

Gabions

Geocell

Walls

Generally we use spill-thru configuration with timber sill on gabion or geocell.

Factors

Site geology

Site materials

Access

Scour Potential

Preliminary Design

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design35
Preliminary Design
  • Costs
    • Very difficult to estimate.
    • No rules of thumb.
    • Procedure
      • Take off and price materials (variable)
      • Crew up labor.
        • $2500/day for crew of 4 with misc.tools/equipment
        • Or use Davis Bacon rates
      • Estimate Equipment needed (cranes, backhoe, helicopter)

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design36
Preliminary Design
  • Costs - continued
    • Materials
      • Sawn Timber $1350/mfbf
      • GL timber $2500/mfbf
      • Bolts/hardware $3.00/lbs.
      • Concrete $600 - $1000/cy
      • Reinforcing Steel $1.25/lb
      • Gabions $125/cy
      • Geocell $15/cy
      • Geocell fill $25-$75/cy

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design37
Preliminary Design
  • Costs - continued
    • Equipment
      • Excavator $130/hr
      • Backhoe $80/hr
      • Dump Truck $75/hr
      • Crane (Light) $350/hr
      • Crane (medium) $650/hr
      • Helicopters See later slides
    • Packing $225/mule trip

(180 lbs per mule)

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design38
Typical work items to accomplish for labor.

Project Management

Mobilization

Excavation

Build Abutments

Install Superstructure

Build Approach walls

Build Approach fills

Less Common Work Items

Helicopter use.

Packing Materials

Supply Camp

Install Falsework.

Preliminary Design

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design39
Preliminary Design
  • Nail Lam built 15 years ago.
  • Replace with glu-lam stringer bridge.
  • On sills.
  • Wilderness
  • Use Helicopter to fly in stringers.
  • Estimate based on Contract Construction

Flood Creek – Custer

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design41
Preliminary Design

Whose Responsibility / Authority for preliminary decisions?

Forest!

  • However, Engineering must assist!
  • Why?
  • Call FE and or RO during Project Scope for assistance with alternatives and options.
    • Meet with Rec staff and Ranger to discuss preliminary design options and alternatives.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preliminary design42
Preliminary Design
  • At this point
    • Re-evaluate Project Scope!
    • Re-evaluate Funding!
  • Why?
    • Many times each site has several alternatives being evaluated.
    • Must select Final Design Alternative.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

final design ps e
Final Design, PS&E

Typically done by Engineering

  • Plans (as a minimum)
    • Title Sheet (signatures)
    • Bridge Layout (Plan and Elevation)
      • On site plan from survey.
    • Abutment/foundation details
    • Superstructure details
    • Miscellaneous details

R1 Trails Project Preparation

final design ps e44
Final Design, PS&E
  • Specifications
    • FP-03, Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on federal Highway Projects.
    • Special Project Specifications as needed.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

final design ps e45
Final Design, PS&E
  • Estimates
    • Estimated Construction Costs
      • Update of preliminary estimate
    • Estimated Schedule for Construction

R1 Trails Project Preparation

final design ps e46
Final Design, PS&E
  • Plans, Specs and Estimates
    • All 3 required.
    • Any difference for Force Account vs Contract?
      • Shouldn’t be!
    • Authorities
      • Regional Engineer must approve PS&E package, UNLESS
      • Using Standard Plans, then FE has authority to approve PS&E package.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

construction
Construction
  • All Trail Bridge Construction is to be administered and inspected by
    • Certified COR, Level III
    • With appropriate technical endorsements.
    • Any difference for Force Account vs Contract?
      • NO!
    • RO will assist as needed or requested.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Pre-designed and detailed drawings for:
    • Typical Trail Bridge Superstructures
    • Typical simple substructures (sills).

Iron Springs on Maay-Daay-Hey Trail

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans49
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Intended Uses
    • Simple, single spans
    • Spans less than 60 feet
    • Adapted for each site.
    • FE can approve.
  • Limitations
    • At discretion of FE only.
    • Not for complex bridges.
    • Not for difficult abutments.
    • Still requires, survey, hydraulic analysis, soils, etc.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans50
Trail Bridge Standard Plans

Typical Superstructures: Drawing #

  • Solid Sawn Timber Stringer R1920
  • Log Stringer R1921
  • Glu-lam timber stringer R1922
  • Glu-lam longitudinal slab R1923
  • Single log R1924
  • Nail-lam longitudinal slab R1925
  • Prefabricated steel truss R1926
  • Packable spliced stringer R1927

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans51
Trail Bridge Standard Plans

Typical abutment details Drawing #

Various types of sills used R1930-34

Will need to be customized for each site.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans52
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Sawn Timber Stringer
    • Spans 10 to 40 feet
    • Any width
    • Stringers 3x10 to 8x24
    • ROS - ???
    • Economical if you have used stringers.
    • But stringer quality large than 4x10 gets iffy.
    • Costs increase significantly with larger stringers.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans sawn stringer
Trail Bridge Standard PlansSawn Stringer

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans54
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Log Stringer
    • Spans 10 to 45 feet.
    • Any width.
    • Diameter from 8” to 22”
    • ROS – ???
    • Costs are higher Than other types for similar spans.
    • More difficult to build and maintain.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans log stringer
Trail Bridge Standard PlansLog Stringer

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans56
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Glu-laminated Stringer
    • Spans 25 to 60 feet.
    • Any width.
    • Stringers 3.125 x 15 to 8.75 x 39.
    • Requires diaphragms.
    • ROS - ????
    • Most ecomomical for spans 40 feet or longer.
    • Easy construction but requires larger equipment.
    • Low maintenance.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans gl stringer
Trail Bridge Standard PlansGL Stringer

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans58
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • GL Longitudinal Slab
    • Spans 10 to 35 feet.
    • Best for widths < 8’.
    • Come in panels, max 4’ width.
    • ROS - ???
    • Very ecomomical
    • Easy to build.
    • Low maintenance
    • Handrail more difficult to attach.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans60
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Single Log Stringer
    • User is hiker only.
    • Spans 10 to 45 feet.
    • Diameters 16” to 24”
    • ROS – ???.
    • Handrail is hard to attach and align.
    • Handrail may be maintenance problem.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans single log
Trail Bridge Standard PlansSingle Log

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans62
Trail Bridge Standard Plans

Nail-Lam Longitudinal Slab

  • Spans 12 to 30 feet.
  • Best for widths < 8’.
  • Materials 2x6 to 2x14.
  • ROS - ???
  • Labor intensive.
  • Materials less expensive but labor is higher.
  • Good for sites short distance from trailhead but not accessible for equipment
  • Moderate maintenance.
  • Handrail difficult to attach.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans64
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Prefabricated Steel Truss
    • Spans > 60’ (Standard Plans limited to 100’)
    • Any width.
    • ROS – ???
    • Requires heavy equipment.
    • Too heavy for economical use of helicopters.
    • Requires manufacturer design and shop drawings.
    • Low maintenance.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans66
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Packable Bridge
    • Span 36 feet or less.
    • Any width.
    • ROS - ???
    • Alternative to helicopter use.
    • Expensive materials.
    • Labor intensive.
    • More difficult to build.
    • Increased maintenance.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans packable bridge
Trail Bridge Standard PlansPackable Bridge

R1 Trails Project Preparation

trail bridge standard plans68
Trail Bridge Standard Plans
  • Abutment Details
    • Sill designs - Spill-thru
    • Keep away from stream edge.
    • Not applicable if scour issues.
    • Do not stack sills to gain height.
    • Place on geocell, gabion, or concrete pad.
    • Need to be site adapted.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

timber cribbing rock gabions
Timber Cribbing & Rock Gabions

Sill on Gabion

Sill on Timber crib on geocell

R1 Trails Project Preparation

others trail bridge types
Others Trail Bridge Types

Timber Truss

  • Spans 50 to 100+ feet.
  • Any width
  • ROS – ???
  • Labor intensive.
  • Difficult to build
  • Moderate maintenance.
  • Can be built with semi- primitive tools or heavy equipment.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

others trail bridge types timber truss
Others Trail Bridge TypesTimber Truss

R1 Trails Project Preparation

others trail bridge types72
Others Trail Bridge Types
  • Suspension Bridges
    • Spans > 100 feet
    • Up to 8 feet.
    • ROS – ???
    • Very difficult to build.
    • Very high maintenance.
    • Very high cost

R1 Trails Project Preparation

general guidance
General Guidance

R1 Trails Project Preparation

general guidance74
General Guidance

Railing – Are they needed?

Proposed manual direction says:

In general, rails shall be required for all trail and pedestrian bridges. However, railings may be eliminated and potentially curbs substituted for rails when an appropriate analysis as described below has been completed:

  An analysis has identified and evaluated the potential users and determined that the potential hazards along the trail are the same or greater than that of a bridge without a rail. The analysis shall include the possibility of using a rail on only one side of the bridge. In general, rural and urban ROS settings are likely to have small children and less experienced users. Thus, a railing is warranted in most instances. In backcountry or wilderness settings, where users are normally more experienced, rails may not be needed.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

general guidance76
General Guidance

Dome Mtn. Kootenai. Cabinet Wilderness

No Handrail!

R1 Trails Project Preparation

general guidance77
General Guidance

R1 Trails Project Preparation

wilderness trail bridges
Wilderness Trail Bridges
  • Unique
    • What is appropriate?
    • What can you build?
    • Is a bridge needed?

Bob Marshall Wilderness

R1 Trails Project Preparation

wilderness trail bridges79
Design Process

Add conceptual design before Project Scope

Need alternatives

Bridge Type

Construction methods

Materials

Costs

Wilderness Trail Bridges

Conceptual Design

Project Scope

Location/Survey

R1 Trails Project Preparation

wilderness trail bridges80
Wilderness Trail Bridges
  • Minimum Tool analysis.
  • Use of helicopters
  • Force Account or Contract.
  • Logistics!!

Wilderness bridges are the most complicated and expensive. Need special attention.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

helicopter usage
Helicopter Usage
  • Helicopter contracts
    • Type I – (Heavy) Sky cranes, etc
      • Can pick up to 25,000 lbs.
      • On call contract $9000/hour
      • Must come out of West Coast.
      • Mob costs prohibitive.
    • Type II – (Medium)
      • 5000 to 12,000 lbs.
      • On call contract $4500/hour
      • Several in Montana, but not readily available.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

helicopter usage82
Helicopter Usage
  • Helicopter contracts
    • Type III –( Light)
      • Can pick up to 5000lbs.
      • On call contract $1800/hour
      • For up to 3000 lbs, readily available.
    • Need to plan ahead and try to coordinate with other work in the area to lower costs.

R1 Trails Project Preparation

helicopter usage83
Helicopter Usage
  • Helicopter Use - best value?
    • Small helicopter
      • More trips
      • More on-site labor (fly one stringer at a time)
    • Big Helicopter
      • Less trips.
      • Less on site labor (fly in entire bridge superstructure)

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preservative treatments
Preservative Treatments
  • What is life expectancy of permanent bridge?
  • Life of untreated material?
    • 15 to 20 years
  • Life of treated material?
    • 50 + years

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preservative treatments85
Preservative Treatments
  • Treated vs Untreated.
    • Manual Direction fpr permanent structures
      • design life of 50 yrs
    • However, exceptions are made.
    • Who decides?
      • Forest
    • Treated material is strongly recommended.

Papoose Creek on Clwt NF

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preservative treatments86
Preservative Treatments
  • Protect the integrity of Treatment.
    • Cutting ends, drilling holes, all ruins treatment.
  • Field treatments have limited success.
  • To apply field treatments, person needs training and certification. Hassle!

Blue Sky Bridge on Ktn NF

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preservative treatment
Preservative Treatment
  • Any laws against Treatment?
    • Only 1 by EPA
    • Can not use CCA in members in direct contact with peoples skin.
    • No others.
  • However, do we want oily treatment on handrails?

R1 Trails Project Preparation

preservative treatment88
Preservative Treatment
  • Options
    • Substructure, stringers, deck, curbs
      • Penta, Copper Naphthenate
    • Handrail
      • Treated – many choices
      • Untreated – redwood or Red Cedar
  • Changing constantly

Iron Springs - DPGL

R1 Trails Project Preparation