Preserving Body Image and Self-Esteem Among Overweight Youngsters Joanne Ikeda, MA, RD University of California Extension Nutrition Specialist Dec. 10, 2004 FNEP ITV University of Missouri-Columbia. Body Image.
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Preserving Body Image and Self-Esteem Among Overweight YoungstersJoanne Ikeda, MA, RDUniversity of California Extension Nutrition SpecialistDec. 10, 2004 FNEP ITVUniversity of Missouri-Columbia
Body Image Internal representation of your own outer appearance – your own unique perception of your body. (Thompson, Exacting Beauty, APA, 2002)
Body Satisfaction Satisfaction with various aspects of one’s body such as waist, hips, thighs, breasts, hair, etc. (Thompson, Exacting Beauty, APA, 2002)
Self-Esteem Self-esteem is “how much a person likes, accepts, and respects himself overall as a person”.
Body Dissatisfaction Discontent/disappointment with various aspects of one’s body.
How Common is Body Dissatisfaction Among Children ofAll Sizes in 3rd to 6th grade? • 45% wanted to be thinner • 37% had tried to lose weight • 7% scored in anorexia nervosa range
How Common is Dieting Among Children in US?National Study of 10,000 youngsters • 41% of Caucasian children • 40% of Asian children • 33% of Hispanic children • 22% of Black children
Who Promotes Body Dissatisfaction in Children and Teenagers? • Teen Magazines • TV Shows • Movies • Peers • Teachers • Parents
“Body dissatisfaction is the most consistent predictor of the onset of eating disturbances.” (Thompson, Exacting Beauty, APA, 2002)
Body Dissatisfaction has a negative impact on self-esteem, especially among overweight youngsters.
“few problems in childhood have as significant an impact on emotional well-being as being overweight.” Strauss & Pollack, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2003
*Point out that human bodies come in a wide range of sizes and shapes and that there is no “perfect” body size and shape.
Never imply that there is something wrong with a child’s body no matter what size it is.
Promoting Body Satisfaction and High Self-Esteem *Challenge media images of the “perfect body.
Want to Be a Teen Vogue “IT” GIRL? • Staying up on the latest trends in fashion and beauty is an absolute must for me! • I consider myself to be a leader • I secretly (or not so secretly) love to be the center of attention • Other people look to me for advice on clothes, cosmetics and style
Talk About What Characteristics We Value in Our Friends • Listens to me when I talk about my problems and concerns. • Cares about me. • Enjoys doing the things I like to do. • Is there for me when I need a friend. • Doesn’t tell others my “secrets”.
Promoting Body Satisfaction and High Self-Esteem * Advocate & demonstrate respect for the bodies of others as well as your own body
Model Body Acceptance and Body Satisfaction • Make positive comments about your own body and the bodies of others. • Do not make negative comments about your own body or the bodies of others • Verbalize your own rejection of the thin, “perfect” body
Believe that discriminating against someone based on their body size is wrong.
* Take a Stance Against Size Discrimination • Speak up when you see it or hear it • Encourage adults to take action if a child is bullied, teased, or discriminated against because of body size. • Tell parents not to allow anyone to tease or harass a child about his/her weight.
How to deal with overweight/obesity.Focus on behaviors NOT weight • Soda consumption • Fruit and Vegetable Consumption • Fast Food and Snack Food • Time spent in active play • Time spent watching TV
Set Behavioral Goals Not Weight Goals • Limit TV watching/computer game playing to 2 hours per day • Play actively for 60 minutes every day – do something that you enjoy • Walk or bike to and from school
Set Behavioral Goals Not Weight Goals • Drink low fat or nonfat milk at meals instead of soft drink. • Limit soft drink consumption to one 12 ounce can a day or less. • Eat 5 servings a day of fruits and vegetables • Limit fast food meals to 1-2 per week
Impacts of Dieting on Children’s HealthPhysical well being • Risk of stunting growth in height • Lower bone density • Delayed puberty • Poor nutrient intake • Fatigue • Obesity
Impact of Dieting on Children’s HealthPsychological well being • Preoccupation with food and eating • Sneaking and hiding food • Body dissatisfaction, poor self-esteem • Eating disorders
Impact of Dieting on Children’s HealthSocial well being • Subject to size discrimination by adults • Teased, harassed, and rejected by peers • Apt to become socially isolated
A Stanford study that followed 692 females from 9th through 12th grade found that increased dieting and radical weight loss efforts predicted greater subsequent growth in relative weight and increased risk of obesity. Stice et al, J Consult Clin Psychol,1999
Study by Harvard Medical School assessed weight change of frequent dieters compared to those who never dieted. • Over 10,000 youngsters ages 9 to 14 followed for 2 years. • Regardless of their calories, fat, CHO, or their physical activity or inactivity, the frequent dieters were more likely to become overweight than those who never dieted.
Diagnosis and treatment of childhood overweight is the responsibility of the medical profession, it not our responsibility. ►Examine child’s growth history over time ►Consider weight of biological parents and close relatives ►Conduct examination of child for medical problems associated with overweight ►Recommend and provide/refer for treatment
Our responsibility is: • To help children and adults eat nutritious diets and be physically active. • To help create environments that promote eating nutritious diets and being physically active.
Promote Body Satisfaction, a Positive Body Image, and High Self-esteem for All Adults and Children.
Recognize that the best way to decrease overweight is to create environments that promote healthy lifestyles in families.
Believe that the vast majority of parents love their children and are committed to fostering their health and welfare.
Know that our children are our future and we are strongly committed to caring for them and creating a world in which they can thrive.