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2004 World Food Prize International Symposium Des Moines, Iowa, USA 14-15 October 2004. The Doubly Green Revolution in Rice. Ronald P. Cantrell Director General International Rice Research Institute. 2004 World Food Prize Laureates. Prof. Yuan Longping. Dr. Monty Jones.

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slide2

2004 World Food Prize International Symposium

Des Moines, Iowa, USA14-15 October 2004

The Doubly Green Revolution in Rice

Ronald P. Cantrell

Director General

International Rice Research Institute

slide3

2004 World Food Prize Laureates

Prof. Yuan Longping

Dr. Monty Jones

slide4

“The world needed a Doubly Green Revolution that would be even more productive than the first Green Revolution and substantially more ‘green’ in terms of conserving natural resources and the environment.”

(Conway 1997)

slide5

The Doubly Green Revolution—in rice—has begun and significant progress has already been made.

slide6

The Doubly Green Revolution—in rice—has begun and significant progress has already been made.

IRRI and its partners in national agricultural research and extension systems have already had noteworthy successes with environment-friendly technologies.

slide7

“The Green Revolution proved that poverty and hunger could be alleviated through the application of modern science and technology and, without it, the numbers of poor and hungry today would be far greater.”

(Conway 1997)

slide9

Since then, the global rice harvest has more than doubled, racing slightly ahead of population growth.

slide10

Since then, the global rice harvest has more than doubled, racing slightly ahead of population growth.

This increased production—and the resulting lower prices of rice across Asia—have been the most important results of the higher yields that rice research and new farming technologies have made possible.

slide11

About 1,000 modern rice varieties are linked to germplasm developed by IRRI and its NARES partners.

slide12

Dr. Gurdev Khush is responsible for developing hundreds of breeding lines that led to many of these varieties…

slide13

…which ultimately increased the overall availability of rice and helped to reduce world market rice prices by 80% over the last 20 years.

slide16

The job started in the first Green Revolution is not finished.

Although we did stave off hunger to a significant extent on two continents, an estimated 800 million still do not have access to sufficient food to meet their needs.

slide17

There is the daunting challenge in Asia to increase the current level of annual rice production of around 545 million tons to about 700 million tons...

slide19

We can only meet these challenges now and for the future if we heed some of the hard lessons learned in the first Green Revolution.

These echo some of Dr. Conway’s reasons as to why a new Doubly Green Revolution is the right course.

slide20

Forty years ago, millions of lives were at risk from hunger and starvation and results were needed fast—an increase in food production had to be the top Green Revolution priority in Asia and Latin America.

slide21

Forty years ago, millions of lives were at risk from hunger and starvation and results were needed fast—an increase in food production had to be the top Green Revolution priority in Asia and Latin America.

There was a real danger of people starving back then, so we focused on increasing production, doing whatever it took. It was a tough choice, but we focused on high-input agriculture that would ensure that everyone got fed.

slide22

The conventional wisdom of the time was that the environment was either insignificant or, at least, capable of being easily redressed at a future date, once the main task of feeding millions of hungry people was accomplished.

slide23

As Dr. Conway pointed out in his book: “There was also a strongly held view that a healthy, productive agriculture would necessarily benefit the environment.

Certainly, good agronomy was good environmental management.

slide24

Through the ages, traditional agriculture has usually followed ecological wisdom.

Unfortunately, this has not always been the case with the use of Green Revolution technologies over the last 40 years.

slide25

The combination of pesticides and fertilizers with the HYV seeds was key to increasing food production.

slide26

The combination of pesticides and fertilizers with the HYV seeds was key to increasing food production.

All too often, these technologies turned out to have adverse environmental effects.

slide27

We have learned some important lessons over the last 40 years. IRRI, for one, believes that modern technologies can indeed be environmentally sensitive—if they are designed and used with the benefit of modern ecological knowledge.

slide28

We have learned some important lessons over the last 40 years. IRRI, for one, believes that modern technologies can indeed be environmentally sensitive—if they are designed and used with the benefit of modern ecological knowledge.

IRRI is committed to ensuring a cleaner, greener environment.

slide29

Our research strategy for rice in the 21st century is to couple our ongoing varietal improvement work using hybrids and the new plant type, for example,…

slide30

…with finding new durable disease resistance and developing innova-tive sustainable crop production systems that facilitate lower-input methods that are friendlier to the environment.

slide31

Over the past 10-20 years, IRRI scientists have been looking at scores of different ways to control rice pests and diseases, all with the aim of reducing—and in some cases even eliminating—chemical use.

slide32

Over the past 10-20 years, IRRI scientists have been looking at scores of different ways to control rice pests and diseases, all with the aim of reducing—and in some cases even eliminating—chemical use.

To illustrate our environment-friendly focus, let’s look at some projects—in China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and elsewhere in Asia—that are jumpstarting the Doubly Green Revolution in rice.

slide33

In China, we are finding that crop biodiversity can play a key role in helping farmers improve their livelihoods while protecting the environment and their families’ health.

slide34

We’ve found huge benefits—in disease control and increased income—by planting traditional rice varieties either alongside or in place of the modern HYVs and hybrids.

slide35

Exploiting biodiversity to protect crops is hardly new, but researchers and farmers working together to use cutting-edge science to exploit the strategy to its maximum effect certainly is new.

slide36

The rapid spread of this interplanting technology

in China has been facilitated by what we call the Lighthouse Approach.

slide37

The “lighthouse” is a site where teams of researchers and extension specialists from various disciplines work jointly in planning and implementing pilot experiments.

slide38

Farmers are involved in demonstrating practical application of the research findings and “radiating” research results to other sites with similar environments.

slide39

The results have been dramatic—in the traditional variety, blast incidence dropped to a mere 5% from an average of 55% farmers had seen in monoculture.

slide40

Farmers reported an average of US$280 more income per hectare compared to growing HYVs and hybrids alone…and are now achieving better plant protection with minimum fungicide use against blast.

slide41

Proportion of area planted to different traditional varieties and index of genetic diversity, Yunnan Province, China, 1997-2002.

Increasing use of quality and specialty rice varieties that command high prices

40000

0.40

More income per hectare

30000

0.30

Reduced fungicide use

Area, ha

Genetic diversity index

20000

0.20

10000

0.10

0

0

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

Huangkenuo

Zinuo

Huangpangshiew

Milexiangmi

Alunuo

Hongkenuo

Giugu

Zigu

Xianggu

Xiangnuomi

slide42

Blast

Bacterial blight

D

C

Gall midge

Tungro virus

Efforts continue to find new durable and broad spectrum resistance to diseases and insects

slide43

At IRRI, we are now taking advantage of the availability of new information coming out of sequencing of the rice genome by setting up an allele “mining” operation at the International Rice Genebank.

slide44

Diseased leaf area (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0

DLA-BN

DLA-Ca

1

2

3

4

5

6

No. of defense genes

Accumulating defense genes to fight rice blast

Resistance against multiple races of rice blast pathogen observed at two IRRI blast nursery (BN) and Cavinti (Ca), Philippines

Resistant lines with 5 defense genes

Susceptible lines without defense genes

slide45

While it has not been easy to wean rice farmers from their dependence on chemicals, IRRI and local researchers have achieved notable success in Vietnam.

slide46

While it has not been easy to wean rice farmers from their dependence on chemicals, IRRI and local researchers have also achieved notable success in Vietnam.

Research there shows that farmers' perceptions, rather than an economic rationale, are behind their pest management decisions. So, it is believed that farmers generally over-estimate the seriousness of many pests and thus spray too much.

slide47

It was found spraying in the first 40 days after sowing was not necessary, so farmers were told it was a waste of money—not by foreign scientists—but through a unique and innovative, local, communication campaign.

slide48

That involved local radio dramas aired across the Delta and supported by leaflets, posters, and billboards.

Eventually, this effort persuaded almost 2 million rice-growing households in the Mekong Delta to cut back on using harmful and unnecessary farm chemicals.

slide50

We believe insecticide can be reduced by another 50% in the Mekong Delta, sparing natural predators and still not affecting rice production.

This is true too in countries such as Thailand and Laos where media campaigns are

just beginning.

slide51

Many fear that insecti-cide use will creep up again if the media campaigns lapse.

That’s why the Rockefeller Foundation is supporting a 3-year effort to develop new radio soap operas in Vietnam—and Laos as well—to continue communicating the important message.

slide52

Farm IPM radio’s 104-episode drama premiered in Vinh Long, Vietnam, on 7 July and in Vientiane, Laos, on 22 July. Each drama will be broadcast twice weekly through July 2005.

Scientists and creative artists working together!

slide53

In Bangladesh, indiscrim-inant insecticide use became so entrenched that, with the end of government handouts in 1978, poor farmers were still willing to shoulder the whole cost.

slide54

Now, there is an excellent chance that, with continued donor support, the next decade may see many of Bangladesh’s 11.8 million rice farmers no longer using insecticides to any significant degree.

slide55

Through the Livelihood Improve-ment Through Ecology project, we set out with the Bangladesh NARES to discover the exact cause of a drop that we assumed would occur in rice yield when farmers stopped spraying insecticide.

LITE

slide56

Imagine everyone’s surprise!

When cooperating farmers stopped spraying, their rice yields didn’t drop at all!

This was in an experiment across 600 fields in two different districts, one in the southeast and one in the northwest of Bangladesh over four seasons.

LITE

slide57

10

9

8

7

6

5

t/ha

4

3

2

1

0

spray FP

spray LCC

no spray FP

no spray LCC

No significant yield difference with no spaying

in Rangpur, Bangladesh

LITE

(n = 12, p = 0.32)

Farmer practice

slide58

Through LITE, thousands of Bangladeshi farmers are becoming agricultural scientists themselves—using a method known as “success case replication (SCR).

slide59

We select lead farmers, identified as already being successful, and train them to perform on-farm experi-ments that prove they don’t need to apply insecticides.

These farmers then train others in the village, as well as successful farmers from surrounding villages, who become the next lead farmers.

slide61

Even in the control villages, where no farmers conducted the experiments, the proportion of farmers using insecticide dropped from 80 to 55%—largely because of casual contact with participating farmers.

slide62

Chemical fertilizer application has been a key element of Green Revolution technology.

The challenge for farmers has always been to know when to apply the input.

slide63

We have found from our on-farm evaluations across Asia that many farmers of irrigated rice apply excess N during early crop growth, when crop demand is low, and then insufficient N at later growth stages when crop demand

is high.

slide64

After 10 years of development and study, we are

promoting site-specific nutrient management (SSNM).

slide65

SSNM enables farmers to “feed” the rice plant with nutrients only as and when needed.

They can optimally use existing indigenous nutrient sources, including crop residues and manures, and timely application of fertilizer.

slide66

The SSNM approach uses a leaf color chart—or LCC—with which farmers monitor the color of rice leaves and apply N fertilizer whenever they become too yellow.

slide67

At the two Bangladesh SSNM sites,net returns with the N management technique, compared with that of the farmers’ practice, was on average US$41-65 per hectare better per season across five seasons.

slide68

In 2004, the approach is being promoted and demonstrated through the distribution of about 66,000 leaf color charts to Bangladeshi farmers as part of the PETRRA and LITE projects.

slide69

D

K

C

K

B

N

E

K

A

N

2.2

2.3

1.1

2.3

1.2

Phosphorus-deficiency tolerance

Nipponbare

Kasalath

kb

0

M1

BAC

1

M18

91

M22

120

M31

165

BAC

2

M38

203

Pup1 interval

267

BAC

3

M50

333

M59

BAC

4

M69

407

BAC

5

530

M75

Pup1 region sequence assembly

Line

Phenotype

Score

34 genes annotated in the 240kb Pup1 region:

1 gene of known function and 4 with some similarity to known genes (not related to P uptake)

13 hypothetical proteins, 16 transposons

 Pup1 possibly a novel gene

Matthias Wissuwa/Abdel Ismail, IRRI

M. Yano, NIAS, Japan

slide70

Improved management of not only N, but P and K fertilizers as well, through SSNM is now increasingly being shown to reduce disease and insect damage in Asia.

This is yet another avenue on which to enhance the Doubly Green Revolution’s agenda to reduce the need for pesticides.

slide71

The Doubly Green Revolution—like the first Green Revolution before it—will depend on the commitment of people—such as these farmers...

slide73

Forty years ago, Dr. Borlaug knew that the people’s inherent resistance to change had to be overcome.

Their hearts and minds had to be won over; otherwise, the new technologies would stay on the shelf.

slide74

By demonstrating to local farmers that the new technologies had the capacity to increase yields, “the grass roots were set afire,” as Dr. Borlaug described it.

Then—as he put it—the politicians had to pay attention and “get out of the way” or risk getting booted out of office.

slide76

So, we have borrowed a page out of Dr. Borlaug’s “playbook.”

That’s’ why the “success case replication” method, is working so well in the Bangladesh LITE project to convince farmers they need not apply insecti-cides and that they can adjust their N application timing using LCC technology .

slide77

The people-oriented aspect of the Doubly Green Revolution is especially exemplified in the Vietnam where FPR was first introduced in the region.

More than 500,000 farmer experiments have been conducted in parallel with the media campaigns.

slide78

The successes of FPR in Vietnam have helped to perpetuate the technique across Asia, where it has become an indispensable standard tool in:

    • The crop biodiversity work in China.
    • The LITE insecticide reduction initiative in
    • Bangladesh.
    • The SSNM work South and Southeast Asia, not
    • to mention its use by many other NARES
    • partners across the continent.
slide79

To assure that environmental sustainability will always be central to IRRI’s research projects and day-to-day operations, we are about to codify our longstanding commitment to environmental protection and sustainable rice production.

slide80

On 5 November during the upcoming World Rice Research Conference in Tokyo, Japan, IRRI will formally launch its Environmental Agenda.

slide81

The Agenda identifies seven key areas of concern:

      • Poverty and environment
      • Farm chemicals and residues
      • Land use and degradation
      • Water use and quality
      • Biodiversity
      • Climate change
      • Use of biotechnology
slide82

Our Agenda recognizes that environmental concerns act both ways.

  • While IRRI strives to reduce the impact of rice farming on the environment, the changing environment also affects rice farming.
  • For IRRI to help the NARES of rice-producing countries, we need to continue to develop technologies that can be used to cope with this change.
slide83

IRRI’s development over the past 40 years of high-yielding rice varieties has helped double average rice yields from the pre-Green Revolution level of less than 2 tons per hectare.

Without this intensification, current rice production would need twice as much land as is currently sown to rice.

slide84

IRRI’s research aims to continue raising rice productivity in favorable environments, thereby reducing the pressure to extend farming into marginal lands.

  • At the same time, the Institute seeks to ensure that farmers who must grow rice in fragile environments will do so using environment-friendly technologies.
slide85

The maintenance research projects just discussed are a critical and integral part of our overall strategy for rice research in the 21st century.

The Doubly Green Revolution in rice will thrive only if we link the MR work and improved crop production systems with the superior modern varieties resulting from our hybrid, new plant type, and genomics research.

slide87

Deepwater elongation (Sripongpangkul et al. 2002)

Submergence tolerance (Xu and Mackill 1996)

Drought (Babu et al. 2003)

Al toxicity (Nguyen et al. 2003; Wu et al. 2000)

Cold tolerance tolerance (Andaya and Mackill 2003)

P uptake (Wissuwa et al. 1998)

Salt tolerance (Bonilla et al. 2002)

Fe toxicity tolerance (Wan et al 2003)

Target QTLs for abiotic stress tolerance in rice

Sub1

Pup1

Sal1

Approximate map position based on:

D. Mackill, IRRI

slide88

We are cognizant of the fact that there will be no successful Doubly Green Revolution without carefully integrating the other components of our research strategy, which include:

    • Renewing and invigorating our efforts to close
    • the yield gap in rice.
    • Using cutting-edge tools—such as genomics for gene
    • discovery—to break the yield barrier and face the twin
    • crises of impending global warming and water shortages.
slide89

We are cognizant of the fact that there will be no successful Doubly Green Revolution without carefully integrating the other components of our research strategy, which include:

    • Employing research consortia, such as CURE and the
    • IRRC—and others such as the Rice-Wheat Consortium
    • and the International Rice Functional Genomics
    • Consortium, wherever possible to enable our researchers
    • to work with scientists from advanced research
    • institutes, NARES partners in collaborative research,
    • and farmers themselves in participatory research.
slide90

The Doubly Green Revolution in rice is indeed already well under way with significant activities and results.

slide93

Jiangsu

Hubei

Sichuan

Chongqing

Zhejiang

Jiangxi

Hunan

Yunnan

Guangxi

Guandong

Nearly 1 million hectares across 10 provinces are now sporting the distinctive pinstripes of varietal interplanting.

slide95

As farmers across the rice-producing world join us in the Doubly Green Revolution, we are confident that food security will be improving significantly for millions of impoverished people.

IRRI will be doing its part with smart research as we…

slide96

Work with our partners, including…

Prof. Yuan Longping

Dr. Monty Jones