网络教育环境下外语教学的生态课堂优化 张瑞红 韩久全河北农业大学外语学院 河北保定 071000
摘要 生态危机是现代人类面临的“全球性问题”之一。在全球生态化的影响下,研究者们运用生态哲学的基本原理对教育系统内部的各子系统进行研究的过程中提出了教学生态观。生态教育理念认为人是信息生态系统中的“中坚种群”，其核心价值是促进人在信息生态中的全面发展。在教育的整个生态系统中，课堂作为其中的一个生态因子，是实施素质教育的主渠道.教学过程就是学生、教师之间借助教学内容、教学手段等进行平等对话的过程。本文对针对近些年教育技术在教育领域的不断应用，基于教学过程中的两个生态平衡：民主的教态和自主的学态，分析网络教育环境下，外语教学课堂生态优化实施的方法和途径。 关键词：网络教育，外语教学，课堂教学生态，优化
Optimization of Ecological Class in Foreign Language Teaching • Abstract: Ecological crisis is one of the global problems that human have to face. Influenced by the global ecological trend, reseachers proposed the views of teaching ecology in the process of studying the subsystems of the educational system based on the principles of ecological philosophy. Ideas of Ecological Education assume that human is the central group, and its core values is to promote human’s all- round development in the information ecology. In the whole ecological system of education, class teaching is among the ecological factors, and is considered as the main way of quality education. Teaching is a process of equal dialogue between teachers and students in the help of teaching contens, teaching means and etc. This paper, considering the increasing application of educational technology in recent years, analyzes how to optimize the class teaching ecology in the foreign language teaching in the basis of two ecological balance of teaching process: teacher’s democratic manner and student’s autonomic manner in learning. As a result, the final goal of training the talents with high qualities and all-round development is completed with the teaching.
Optimization of Ecological Class in Foreign Language Teaching • Key words: • online education, • foreign language teaching, • class teaching ecology, • optimization
Optimization of Ecological Class in Foreign Language Teaching • Introduction • The necessity of optimizing the ecological class • Ways of optimizing the ecological class • Summary
1. Introduction • In the 21th century, the coming of the global Internet era brought a new education model to the reform on teaching and education --- Online Education. It is not only the important part of modern distance education, but will be the main education model of this century in high education. Online teaching brought the convenience to class teaching, and even more, became a challenge to the traditional class teaching.
1. Introduction • The best way of achieving the good teaching effect is the complement and co-existence of two class teachings. Class, as among the ecological factors, is the main channel of quality education and of keeping the ecological balance of teaching. In the micro-ecosystem of class teaching, how to develop the harmonious relationship between them becomes the focus on education reform.
Introduction • Teachers’ manner and students’ attitude in learning benefit for the establishment of good ecological balance at class. The construction of two important ecological balances: teachers’ democratic manner and students’ automatic manner in the teaching process, contribute to the two concerning ecological factors: teacher and student.
2. The necessity of optimizing the ecological class • 2.1 State analysis • 2.2 The ecological class teaching
2.1 State analysis • In the recent years the internationized feature in the high education has become clearer and clearer, however, College English Teaching in China can not meet the international development. Though many universities have made some reforms and attempts in teaching system, model and method and etc, it is not nearly enough to change radically the state of College English Teaching in the high education.
2.1 State analysis • The expansion of undergraduate led to the teaching way of large class which took bad effect on organizing the interactivities between the ecological factors: teachers and students, or students and students at class. Most Class are still the "One-way Presentation" of teacher-centered method, the "Interactive Communication" is hard to be realized.
2.1 State analysis • Teaching aims at the examination: • This examination-oriented education system breaks the laws of language learning, and students are lack of opportunities in practising and using language, and lack of interactivities between teachers and students. All these disadvantages contribute to the lose of balance in the teaching ecosystem, naturally students are easy to lose their activities and learning interests.
2.1 State analysis • English learning is not only to study a language itself. Language is the carrier of culture. The short 45 minute- class has no way to carry all these rich cultural implications to learners. The present single English teaching model cannot meet the demands and laws of language learning. Online classs, as an assisted teaching way of the traditional class, can provide the rich resources of language and culture, and can also bring more visual resources to help learners understand and feel the native accent、native expression.
2.1 State analysis As professor Gu Yueguo proposed that online education can provide the best educational ecosystem for learners. Internet provides a better joint for the integration between class teaching and information technology. The combination of two class teachings can motivate teachers and students, the two ecological factors to optimize the teaching process and learning effects.
2.2 The ecological class teaching • American educator Waller. firstly proposed the theory of “ecology of classroom” in his Sociology of Education. From the perspectives of educational ecology, ecological class means that in class teaching the environment should be harmonious and benefit for students’ sustainable development. In the micro-ecological system of class, the final aim is to direct educatees’ body and mind to suit the natural and social development, and promote social progress and ecological balance.
2.2 the ecological class teaching • The central values of ecolgoical system of education in online environment is to promote theachers’ and students’ all-round development in the information ecology, and place emphasis on the harmonious interreaction between man, technology and teaching practice. Online teaching makes up for tha lack of traditional class, the co-exisistence and complement of the virtual and real classes built up an effectively ecological environment for students’ automatic learning.
2.2 the ecological class teaching • The two central groups teachers and students constitute two important balances of teching process: teachers’ democratic manner and students’ automatic manner in independent learning, which natrually become the keys in the dynamic ecosystem between teaching and learning.
3.The ways of optimizing the ecological class teaching • In the educational ecosystem, teaching is a key link and a dynamic process referring to the harmonious development of the ecological factors during the class teaching. The practices indicated that the optimization of the ecological class teaching can be realized only through keeping the balance of two kinds of manners in the process of teaching: teachers’ democratic manner and students’ automatic manner in learning.
The ways of optimizing the ecological class teaching 3.1 teachers’ democratic manner 3.1.1. Respect 3.1.2. Expectation 3.1.3 Appreciation 3.1.4. Encouragement 3.1.5 Empowerment 3.2 students’ automatic manner in independent learning 3.3 establishing the internet suitable to learners’ independent learning
3.1 teachers’ democratic manner • Teachers’ manner as a key factor during the teaching process plays an important hand in students’ moral development. The expression of good manner as a teacher has something with his or her moral and intellectual character, and his or her whole quality.
In online environment, class is transformed from the teacher-oriented to the student-oriented teaching, Teacher is not only a teacher, but more a facilitator, organizer, supervisor, trainer or friend. As a teacher, how to do can form the democratic manner? • Firstly, teacher should have the democratic concept in teaching process. • Secondly, possessing more equally educational behavior is very necessary to teachers, especially to the disadvantageous group. • Thirdly teacher with a good manner should be of several consciounesses:
3.1.1. Respect • In contemporary society and classroom, respect goes both ways. It is not a given, and needs to be earned. New-type relationship between teacher and student in online environment should develop the mutual respect.
3.1.2. Expectation • All of students do something in the hope of their success, even more they devote their “expectation” to inner confidence in learning and daily life. Therefore teachers should believe that every one would be successful, and convey this belief to students through teachers’ eyes, smiles, intonation and etc, make them feel teachers’ support and facilitation.
3.1.3 Appreciation • Teachers should use appreciation education, find students’ “Sparking Point” and appreciate their values, help them to cultivate the Self-confidence. Teachers with good manners are often good at finding their strongpoint, commend and moderately encourage them, and let them feel the happiness of success.
3.1.4. Encouragement • Teachers are natural advise-givers and problem-solvers. Teachers should show their encouragement through the behaviors. What teachers want to do is to become a guide or encourager who assists the student in exploring and discovering various solutions to his own problem. The achievement of encouragement education also depend on teachers’words, smiles and eyes or other body languages and so on.
3.1.5 Empowerment • The power over one’s life is a key component to self-esteem. Empowerment for students, is the better way of experiencing the ability to make a difference in her life and in the life of those around her. And their successes can also set up a good model for others to motivate their activity in teaching.
3.2 students’ automatic manner in independent learning • Independent learning involves pupils taking the initiative in recognising learning requirements and undertaking activities to meet them. Online class provides students with a favorable environment to enable them to become more successfully independent learners. More importantly, man’s subjective initiative plays a dominated role in language learning. Learner’s self-independent learning is a key factor in the succession of language learning.
3.2 students’ automatic manner in independent learning • Only establishing the learning purpose, learners can set the learning goals based on their own level, and choose the learning contents demanding in the completion of their learning goals, finally realize their learning purposes.
3.2 students’ automatic manner in independent learning • To the students, what is the right manner in the independent learning? The key point is that every student should set the clearly defined goals in learning to motivate their inner enthusiasm and interest. Then, students should cultivate the habit of independent learning, train the good ability of learning and emotion, attitude and values. It is very necessary for the authorities or teachers to offer them explicit instructions, keep them under supervisation, give them proper formative evaluation.
3.3 establishing the internet suitable to learners’ independent learning • The Network-based instruction can help learners strengthen their linguistic skills by positively affecting their learning attitude and by helping them build self-instruction strategies and promote their self-confidence. The internet suitable to learners’ independent learning is the best way of achieving such a result.
3.3 establishing the internet suitable to learners’ independent learning • First is to fully use the internet.Online class offers the students the rich resources and wide space, learner can freely choose the content and exercises wtih different levels to strenthen the understanding of the studied knowledge, and do the extensive reading about the background information of language.
3.3 establishing the internet suitable to learners’ independent learning • Second, building a good system of supervisation • Theoretically, the independent learning in online environment, learner can get rich reference materials and resources. Therefore, students easily attain the learning purpose only through choosing the suitable content, reasonable teaching methods. But in reality, there are some students lacking the ability of controlling themselves, of self-management and of firm perseverance in learning.
3.3 establishing the internet suitable to learners’ independent learning • Therefore, the benefitable feedback should be built up in the net system to supervize and control the learning processs and comment the teaching result, and to help students form the high effective and individual learning way.On the one hand, student can check his or her own record through the net, and on other hand, teachers can also make the update score based on the record of exercises and the completion of self-test on Internet, finally set the total score.
Summary • The intergrated pattern of online and traditional foreign language teachings will bring out a more favorable environment for the learner, and set up the harmonious relationship between the two central ecological factors teacher and student. In the whole microecosystem of class learner’s subjective role and teacher’s leading role are fully brought out, and the two balances of the good teaching and learning manner are kept to optimize the ecological class.
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