Pragmatics and Text Analysis. Chapter 6. Introduction .
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When a sentence is uttered, the speaker is performing three kinds of speech acts simultaneously: locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary act .
In order to perform a certain performative speech act, particular conditions should be met.
● Essential conditions
● Propositional conditions
● Preparatory conditions
● Sincerity conditions
A locutionary act may have different illocutionary forces in different contexts. In other words, an utterance may be interpreted as a direct or indirect speech act.
Similarly, an illocutionary act can be performed by different locutionary acts.
Example A below is an explicit performative in which the speech act of request is directly coded by the performative verb request. Example B is an indirect performative in which the speech act of request is indirectly expressed by a question:
But in real communication, the participants often flout the cooperative principle and its maxims.
Cohesive ties may be either grammatical devices such as reference, ellipsis and substitution, and conjunction, or lexical devices such as general words, reiteration and collocation.