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Nanotechnology for Novel Solutions in Medicine and Ethics in India Dr.S.Mokkapati ICMR,New Delhi Welcome swagatam United Nations Millennium Development Goals Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women

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Nanotechnology for Novel Solutions in Medicine and Ethics in India Dr.S.Mokkapati ICMR,New Delhi


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nanotechnology for novel solutions in medicine and ethics in india dr s mokkapati icmr new delhi
Nanotechnology for Novel Solutions in Medicineand Ethics in IndiaDr.S.MokkapatiICMR,New Delhi

Welcome

swagatam

united nations millennium development goals
United NationsMillennium Development Goals
  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Achieve universal primary education
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Reduce child mortality
  • Improve maternal health
  • Combat HIV / AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Develop a global partnership for development
lotus leaf mythology
Lotus leaf mythology
  • naliniidalagata jalamatitaralaMtadvajjiivitamatishayachapalam .viddhi vyaadhyabhimaanagrastaMlokaM shokahataM cha samastam .. (4)
  • The life of a man is as uncertain as rain drops trembling on a lotus leaf. Know that the whole world remains a prey to disease, ego and grief.
slide22
Ancient Hindus unknowingly employed nanotechnology in the manufacture of swords, other weapons and paintings. This was indicated by Nobel Laureate (chemistry) Robert Curl Jr at the 95th Indian Science Congress in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
slide23
Our ancestors have been unwittingly using the technology for over 2,000 years and carbon nano for about 500 years. Carbon nanotechnology is much older than carbon nanoscience,’ said Curl (the Hindu)
slide24
Nobel Laureate (chemistry) Robert Curl Jr told an enchanted audience at the 95th Indian Science Congress here about how Damascus steel was first made by experts in south and south-central India as long ago as around 300 BC. (the New Indian Express)
slide25
The swords produced by ancient Hindu blacksmiths were known to retain its sharp edge and toughness. Such high quality swords were the result of the composition of carbon in it.
slide26
The raw material used by ancient Indians was wootz steel – a high grade steel first made in ancient South India. After burning away the impurities in the iron ore, important ingredients including a high carbon content of nearly 1.5 per cent was added to produce wootz steel.
  • A similar method was employed in Ajanta paintings
slide36
Nanotechnologies are said to offer great promise for medicine, but much of this lies in the future. In the largely exploratory and discovery phase, ethical and social assessment is necessarily preliminary. This future orientation has also made nanotechnologies vulnerable to the current zeitgeist of overclaiming in science, either for potential benefits or harms. Perhaps the first ethical issue is the frequent use of the word “will” about future outcomes which the writer cannot know. This sometimes seems to express an ‘article of faith’ about science which would present a problem if it generated a false impression of inevitability of future developments. Equally there is a need to be careful about placing premature weight on speculative concerns about nanotechnologies raised ahead of evidence. This short paper is broad in its scope. Nanomedicine touches upon many issues already familiar in bioethics, and also some more particular questions. Before considering these, a more basic contextual question should be considered.
slide37
Free, curiosity-driven research.
  • Economic growth, jobs and competitiveness
  • Quality of life, variously defined – e.g. personal affluence, consumer choice, environmental goals, social justice, global health and poverty, spiritual goals
  • Compassion, motivated by the desire to alleviate human suffering.
  • Medical ‘success’ seeking a technical solution to any condition, as an obligation
  • Different religious belief systems.
  • Transhumanism, driving human evolution by physically changing humans.
slide38
there are particular features of nanomedicine to consider. The reductionism that opens powerful therapeutic possibilities can also create potential for powerful harms, if the precision becomes wrongly applied or if it has more than just the desired effect. Small things may mislead by telling an incomplete story. The ability to intervene at a cellular or molecular level may fall foul of the complexity of the system. For example, nanomedicine may enable rapid read-outs of our whole genome or of our body's levels of everything imaginable, but what does all that information mean? What now is a well person, when we have so much unsuspected data about our bodies? This raises familiar issues about genetic information, but also how such extensive and possibly distressing information is handled. Going to the doctor for the right antibiotic for a chest infection may result in discovering a susceptibility to breast cancer.
10 000 years ago let knowledge come from all sides rig veda
10,000 years ago…………..“Let Knowledge come from all sides”-Rig Veda

Segmentation of knowledge leads to divisiveness

Let knowledge be harnessed to uplift the blossoms in the dust too

slide44

Information

products

Industrial

products

Raw Materials

Agri products

Industrial

Society

Agricultural

Society

Information

Society

Knowledge

Society

Innovation

Knowledge

products

Networks

Economic Growth

Technology

Societal Transformation

slide45

What is a Knowledge Society ?

  • That uses knowledge holistically to empower and enrich people– and is an integral driver of sustainable development (societal transformation)
  • A life-long learning society committed to innovation
  • Has the capacity to generate, diffuse, utilize and protect knowledge - creates economic wealth and social equity
  • Enlightens people towards an integrated view of life as a fusion of mind, body and spirit

Planning Commission Report, India 2001

slide46

Investment Driven R&D Regime

“When R & D investments begins to exceed capital investment, the corporation can be said to be shifting from a place for production to a place for knowledge creation”

Genomics

But, 80 countries are classified as scientifically lagging and have no capital

Nanotechnology

RAND S & T Report 2001

slide48

What is a Knowledge Society ?

  • That uses knowledge holistically to empower and enrich people– and is an integral driver of sustainable development (societal transformation)
  • A life-long learning society committed to innovation
  • Has the capacity to generate, diffuse, utilize and protect knowledge - creates economic wealth and social equity
  • Enlightens people towards an integrated view of life as a fusion of mind, body and spirit

Planning Commission Report, India 2001

slide68
What drives nanotechnology?
  • It is a common misconception that technology is neutral. On the contrary, a technology reflects values and goals of the society within which it emerges and, in turn, it may alter the values and aspirations of that society. In a somewhat sceptical climate of public opinion, more sensitive areas of technology might be seen as a social contract. A technology would be welcomed if the values and goals of the inventor are close to those of wider society, and if the invention correctly anticipates what society wishes, as with the mobile phone. On the other hand, if the inventor is remote, the aims do not correlate with the values and goals of the society, or if the invention is unfamiliar or risky, there can be a disjunction, for example the importing of unlabelled GM soya and maize products to the UK.
slide69
IssuesMaterials at a nano scale behave differently and need to be studied separately. Nanomaterials are human-made and concerns have been expressed that free nanoparticles inhaled or ingested can cause damage. Some doubt the veracity of the claims by cosmetic manufacturers that nanoparticles in cosmetics do not penetrate the skin. It is also feared nanoparticles can enter the food chain and affect plants and animals.
  • The UK-based National Academy of Science has, therefore, asked to label these free nanoparticles as new chemicals and to conduct a study into potential hazards arising out of these.The use of small sensors and powerful computers can lead to greater personal security and safety, but at the same time these very technologies can also be used to spy on people and raises concerns about civil liberties.More than US $13 billion has been invested on R&D activities in nanotechnology, but not even a fraction of this is being spent on examining the potential environmental, health, and safety risks.
thank you q a
Thank you & Q.A.

Greatest ethical challenge of our time