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Understand WML Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D. School of Information Sciences and Technology The Pennsylvania State University Possible Service Types by WAP Local Development Services Messaging Call Handling WAP Information Services Gamming Electronic Commerce Transport Database Access

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Understand WML

Chao-Hsien Chu, Ph.D.

School of Information Sciences and Technology

The Pennsylvania State University


Possible service types by wap l.jpg
Possible Service Types by WAP

Local

Development

Services

Messaging

Call

Handling

WAP

Information

Services

Gamming

Electronic

Commerce

Transport

Database

Access


Limitations of wireless l.jpg

Physical Devices:

Size / Display

Memory / Cache Size

Battery

Data Entry Methods

Contents:

Different Standards

Micro browser

Scarcity of contents

Block internet surfing.

Character-based Info.

Networks:

Bandwidth limitations.

Incomplete service coverage.

Lack of an installed user base.

High customer cost.

Changing communications standards.

Latency

Connection reliability

Security.

Limitations of Wireless


Why new standard l.jpg
Why New Standard

Telecom

services

Info

services

Unified

mailbox

E-mail

Info

Call

control

Security

Message

Services

WWW

ITTP

HDML

Other

SIM toolkit

TTML

WAP


Wap architecture l.jpg

WSP/WTP

HTTP

WAP

Client

WAP

Gateway

Web

Server

WML

WMLScript

WTAI

WML Interpreter

WML Encoder

WML Script

Compiler

Protocol Bearers

CGI Scripts

(PERL, ASP,

Java)

WML and

WMLScript

Contents

Internet

WAP Architecture


Sketch of wap network architecture l.jpg
Sketch of WAP Network Architecture

WAP

gateway

Web

server

Corporate

Firewall

Filter

HTML

WML

WAP

gateway

Wireless

Network

Web

server

WTA

server


Internet protocol vs wap l.jpg

HTML

JavaScript

Application Layer (WAE)

Other

Services

and

Applications

HTTP

Session Layer (WSP)

Transaction Layer (WTP)

TLS-SSL

Security Layer (WTLS)

TCP/IP

UDP/IP

Transport Layer (WPD)

Bearers

SMS

USSD

CSD

IS-136

CDMA

CDPD

PDC

Etc.

Internet Protocol vs. WAP


Wireless application protocol l.jpg

Application Layer

Other

Services

And

Applications

Session Layer

Transaction Layer

Security Layer

Transport Layer (WPD)

Bearers

SMS

USSD

CSD

IS-136

CDMA

CDPD

PDC

Etc.

Wireless Application Protocol




Wml structure l.jpg
WML Structure

  • Deck - File

  • Card – Screen

  • Head: XML, DTD Declarations

  • Template: <template>, </template>

  • Root Element: <wml>, </wml>

  • Card: <card>, </card>


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WML Structure

Process Instruction

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.2//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml12.dtd">

<wml>

<template>

</template>

<card>

<p>

</p>

</card>

</wml>

Document Type

Declaration

Root Element

Template

Cards


Wml s functionality l.jpg
WML’s Functionality

  • Text Presentation and Layout: text formatting, line breaks, and alignment.

  • Images – Wireless Bitmap (WBMP) and image alignment.

  • User Inputs – Choice lists, multilevel choices, text entry, and task controls.

  • Cards and Deck Organization.

  • Navigation – URL Naming and anchored links, between cards in a deck, between decks.

  • State and Context Management – Variable passing between decks, Cache both variables and decks.



Paragraph l.jpg

<p> </p>

Two attributes:

align = “left”, “center” or “right”

mode = ‘wrap” or “nowrap”

Paragraph





Navigation between cards and decks l.jpg
Navigation between Cards and Decks

  • <a> … </a>

  • <anchor> … </anchor>



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Events

  • <onenterforward>: Invoke a card via a GO statement.

  • <onenterbackward>: Navigate to a card via the <prev> statement.

  • <onpick>: Select an option.

  • <ontimer>: Delay time for action.

  • These events are invoked via an <onevent> element, an <option> element, or as part of a <template> or <card> element.







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Example of Do Element

<do type=“options” label=“titles” name=“titles”>

<go href=“#titles”/>

</do>

<do type=“options” label=“Authors” name=“authors”>

<go href=“#authors”/>

</do>

<do type=“options” label=“Books” name=“books”>

<go href=“#booklist”/>

</do>


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Thank You?

Any Question?


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