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ANTICANCER AND ANTI-HIV DRUGS DERIVED FROM AFRICAN AND OTHER PLANTS Gordon Cragg, Ph.D. NIH Special Volu PowerPoint Presentation
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ANTICANCER AND ANTI-HIV DRUGS DERIVED FROM AFRICAN AND OTHER PLANTS Gordon Cragg, Ph.D. NIH Special Volunteer Natural Products Branch Developmental Therapeutics Program Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis

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slide1

ANTICANCER AND ANTI-HIV DRUGS DERIVED FROM

AFRICAN AND OTHER PLANTS

Gordon Cragg, Ph.D.

NIH Special Volunteer

Natural Products Branch

Developmental Therapeutics Program

Division of Cancer Treatment and

Diagnosis

NCI-Frederick

Fairview Center, Suite 206

P. O. Box B

Frederick, MD 21702-1201, U. S. A.

Phone: 301-846-5387; fax: 301-846-6178

e-mail: craggg@mail.nih.gov

website: http://dtp.nci.nih.gov; http://dtp.nci.nih.gov/branches/npb/index.html

slide2

Traditional Medicine and Drug Discovery*

  • 80% of the world population resides in developing countries
  • 80% of people in developing countries utilize plants to meet their primary health care needs
  • Global pop. ca. 6.3 billion 
    • ca. 4 billion people utilize plants to meet their primary health care needs

*Farnsworth NR, et al. Medicinal Plants in Therapy. Bull. W.H.O. 63:965-981 (1985)

plant derived drugs
PLANT-DERIVED DRUGS
    • Analgesics: Aspirin: Salix species/Europe
  • Morphine, Codeine;Papaver somniferum/
  • Mesopotamia (Iran, Iraq)
    • Cardiotonic: Digitalin: Digitalis purpurea/UK-Europe
    • Malaria: Quinine: Cinchona spp./Amazonia
  • Artemsinin: Artemisia annua/China
    • Antihypertensive: Reserpine: Rauwolfia serpentina/India
    • Memory enhancement: Physostigmine: Physostigma
    • venenosum/West Africa
    • Muscle relaxant: Tubocurarine:Chondrodendron spp./
  • Amazonia
slide4

NATURE – THE SUPREME MOLECULAR ARCHITECT!

Epothilone A docked in tubulin active site

Epothilone A

Isolated from gliding

bacteria (Myxobacteria)

Nettles et al., "The Binding Mode of Epothilone A on a,ß-Tubulin by Electron Crystallography"

Science, 6 August 2004, Vol. 305, pp. 866-869 (Copyright AAAS)

slide5

PLANT-DERIVED ANTICANCER DRUGS

IN CLINICAL USE OR DEVELOPMENT

    • Vinblastine/Vincristine: Catharanthus roseus/Jamaica,
  • Philippines (originally from Madagascar)
    • Etoposide: Podophyllum species/ Eastern US, Himalayas
    • Paclitaxel/Docetaxel: Taxus species/NW US, Europe
    • Topotecan/Irinotecan: Camptotheca acuminata/China
    • Homoharringtonine: Cephalotaxus harringtonia/China
    • Flavopiridol: Synthetic based on rohutikine from
  • Dysoxylum binectariferum/India
    • Combretastatins: Combretum caffrum/S. Africa
slide6

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION

  • Prior informed consent/permits from Source Country
  • Government and stakeholders.
  • Collaboration with Source Country Organizations.
  • Training and technology transfer.
  • Protection of environment and sustainable development.
  • Plans for benefit-sharing

Dr. D. Soejarto

U. Illinois at Chicago

michellamine b potential anti aids agent discovery and development
MICHELLAMINE BPotential Anti-AIDS Agent Discovery and Development
  • 1987: Collected liana Ancistrocladus korupensis leaves.
  • Korup National Park, Mundemba, S. West Cameroon.
  • Dr. Duncan Thomas (MBG) and Mr. Ndembe (Forestry Dept.).
  • New species (Thomas & Gereau, Novon, 1993, 3, 494-498).
  • 1989: Michellamine B isolated. Active against a range of HIV-1
  • and HIV-2 strains (Boyd et al., J. Med. Chem, 1994, 37, 1740-45).
  • Sufficient isolated from fallen leaves for preclinical development.
a korupensis cultivation studies
A. KORUPENSIS CULTIVATION STUDIES
  • 1993: Contract for cultivation feasibility study awarded.
  • All studies performed in Korup region involving local population.
  • Extensive botanical and analytical survey:
  • - Distribution: One liana per hectare.

- Dried leaf analysis (N=>1,000): Up to 4% (w/w) MB.

  • Nursery established at Mundemba. Cuttings of high-yielding
  • plants propagated.
  • MB content of 1,5 year old seedlings: 0.07-0.73%
development of michellamine b
DEVELOPMENT OF MICHELLAMINE B
  • Formulation as diacetate salt.
  • Toxicology: Rodents, dogs, primates.
  • Toxic dose level close to anticipated effective
  • antiviral dose (narrow therapeutic index).
  • Development suspended.
  • Possibility of lead development (Bringmann, Wurzburg).
  • Novel antimalarial agents, the korupensamines, add
  • further promise for A. korupensis.
slide14

POTENTIAL ANTI-HIV DRUG FROM HOMALANTHUS

  • NUTANS : PROSTRATIN
  • Dr. Paul Cox entered into a Covenant with healers of
  • Western Samoan village of Falealupo
  • Covenant signed with village chiefs and orators with
  • concurrence of Prime Minister and Parliament.
  • Use of Homalanthus nutans by healersrecorded
  • by Dr. Cox: Treatment of “yellow” fever.
  • $480,000 provided for schools, clinics, water supplies,
  • trails, aerial walkways, etc.
  • Endowment established for preservation of forest.
  • P.A.Cox, Pharmaceutical Biology, 2001, 39 (Supplement ), 33-40
slide16

Potent activator of HIV

expression in latently-

infected T-cells

  • Licensed by NIH to the AIDS ReSearch Alliance of America
  • Agreement with Government of Samoa
  • Milestone payments on completion of Phase I, II and III clinical trials
  • Royalties totaling 20% of net revenues
  • Distribution between government, village community and healers’
  • families
slide17

Calophyllum teysmannii var. inophylloide. Sustainable source of potential anti-AIDS

drug, calanolide B. Discovery from tree in Sarawak, Malaysia, promoted conservation and replanting of seedlings in clearcut regions, and led to establishment of the

Sarawak Biodiversity Center for in-country

research on drug discovery from local biodiversity

D.D. Soejarto, University of Illinois at Chicago

slide18

CALANOLIDES

DEVELOPMENT

  • 1995: Calanolides licensed to Medichem Research Inc.
  • Synthesis of (+)-calanolide A supported by NCI SBIR grant
  • Negotiation with Sarawak State Govt. required by LOC

1996: Joint venture company, Sarawak Medichem

Pharmaceuticals formed

  • Phase I trials of Calanolide-A completed/well tolerated
  • Phase II trials in progress
  • Calanolide B in preclinical development
slide19

PARALLEL DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL MEDICINES

AND THE DISCOVERY OF

NOVEL CONVENTIONAL DRUGS

  • Bioassay-guided isolation and chemical characterization
  • of active principle(s)
  • Provide markers for standardization of herbal products
  • Provide lead compounds for conventional drug
  • development
slide20

Basic Philosophy

Any herbal drug or botanical supplement to be considered for clinical trials must be botanically authenticated as well as chemically and biologically standardized.

Dr. Norman Farnsworth, Director, UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary

Supplements Research

slide21

Steps Required Prior to Clinical Assessment of Herbal Drugs/Botanical Dietary Supplements

  • Acquire plant material
    • Verify identity; taxonomic/microscopic/PCR
    • Check for pesticides; herbicides; heavy metals
  • Establish/select appropriate bioassay
  • Bioassay several types of extracts
    • In vitro
    • In vivo (if possible/relevant)
slide22

Steps Required (continued)

  • Bioassay-guided isolation and chemical characterization of active principle(s)
  • Prepare the biologically and chemically standardized dosage form
    • Conduct stability studies
  • In vitro studies on standardized product
    • Metabolism (including interactions with p450s)
    • Pharmacokinetics
    • Toxicity
    • Mechanism of Action
slide23

http://www.asnapp.org/

Thank you for visiting this website, which is intended to be a network hub for all

stakeholders in Africa’s natural plant products sector. Through knowledge-sharing

and information-exchange via this site, ASNAPP (Agribusiness in Sustainable

Natural African Plant Products) seeks to create a knowledge community that will

strengthen the continent’s capacity to develop this sector.

In the interests of developing successful natural product agribusinesses, and thus

helping to reduce poverty in rural communities, ASNAPP promotes collaboration

and knowledge sharing with research and academic institutions, government,

private enterprises, non-profit organizations, the donor community and civil

Society.

For this purpose, the ASNAPP website encourages information exchange in any of the

following areas:

Applied research and technology transfer

Quality assurance and control

Market linkages and development

Enterprise and farmer association development

Natural resource management

Policy dialogue and advocacy

slide24

These areas are the main thrust of ASNAPP’s activities for 2005, based on the following

three new programmes funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID):

The Partnership for Food Industry Development Program (PFID), managed by

Rutgers University’s New Use Agriculture and Natural Plants Products Program.

The Rural Livelihoods Activity in Southern Africa programme, run by the Michigan

State University Partnership for Food Industry Develop Program – Fruits and

Vegetables (MSU PFID – F & V) in conjunction with a consortium of partners.

The Partnership for Sustainable Germplasm Development for Non-traditional

Crops, a collaborative project involving various academic and research institutions

as well as private enterprises in South Africa and Zambia.

ASNAPP USARutgers University - Cook CollegeDepartment of Plant Biology and Plant Pathology59 Dudley Road, 381 Foran HallNew Brunswick, New Jersey 08901Professor Jim SimonCo-Principal Investigator and Quality Control Coordinator ASNAPP ProgramNew Use Agriculture and Natural Plants ProgramTel: +732 932-9711 Ext. 355/379Fax: +732 932-9377Email: jesimon@aesop.rutgers.eduWebsite: www.nuanpp.org

Partner countries: Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Zambia, USA

slide25

Clinical Trials and Complementary

and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

While many CAM treatments have already been in use for

a long time (sometimes for centuries), there is not the kind

of scientific knowledge available about them that has been

gained from studies of conventional medicine. Many people

are already using CAM, and without this scientific knowledge,

they may be at risk— for example, for serious effects from

taking the wrong dose, using the treatment in the wrong way,

or using it with another treatment with which it interacts.

slide26

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL COLLABORATION

  • AFASSA: Africa, Asia and South America
  • Co-ordinates activities of networks involved in natural product
  • research in Africa, Asia and South America.
  • Founded at Intercontinental Symposium on Natural Products
  • Research in Montevideo in December, 1999.

NAPRECA SYMPOSIUM

ADDIS ABABA 2003

Next symposium:

Antananarivo, Madagascar

August 9-12, 2005

Takelaka.dts.mg/rafita

slide27

THANK YOU

http://dtp.nci.nih.gov