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Overarm Throwing and Striking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Overarm Throwing and Striking. an overhead pattern common to many different sports. Pitching. 3 phases cocking (wind-up) acceleration deceleration. Cocking Phase. front leg strides forward trunk rotation

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overarm throwing and striking
Overarm Throwing and Striking
  • an overhead pattern common to many different sports
pitching
Pitching
  • 3 phases
    • cocking (wind-up)
    • acceleration
    • deceleration
cocking phase
Cocking Phase
  • front leg strides forward
  • trunk rotation
  • shoulder abducted to 90, shoulder ext rotation, scapular retraction, and elbow flexion

end cocking phase

cocking phase1
Cocking Phase
  • early stage
    • deltoid and supraspinatus produce abduction (scapulo-humeral rhythm)
    • infraspinatus and teres minor initiate external rotation and assist abduction
    • trapezius and rhomboids retract the scapula

end early stage

cocking phase2
Cocking Phase
  • late stage (striding leg hits ground)
    • latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major slow the backward movement and initiate forward motion in shoulder (alot of activity)
    • triceps brachii activates to slow elbow flexion
    • serratus anterior controls scapular movement

end late stage

cocking phase3
Cocking Phase
  • late stage (cont.)
    • teres minor and infraspinatus increase activity to complete external rotation
    • supraspinatus increases activity to maintain abduction

end late stage

cocking phase4
Cocking Phase
  • external rotation - EXTREME
    • external rotation terminated by forces from
      • anterior joint capsule & ligaments
      • subscapularis
      • pectoralis major
      • triceps brachii
      • teres major
      • latissimus dorsi
cocking phase5
Cocking Phase
  • common injuries resulting from EXTREME external rotation
    • tendinitis of supraspinatus tendon
    • muscle strain of pectoralis major, teres major, or latissimus dorsi
acceleration phase
Acceleration Phase
  • explosive phase characterized by
    • initiation of elbow extension
    • shoulder internal rotation
    • maintenance of shoulder abduction at 90
    • shoulder transverse abduction
    • scapular protraction
acceleration phase1
Acceleration Phase
  • transverse abduction and internal rotation
    • subscapularis,
    • latissimus dorsi
    • teres major
    • pectoralis major
  • scapular protraction
    • serratus anterior
  • elbow extension
    • triceps brachii
acceleration phase2
Acceleration Phase
  • injury localized to subacromial area
    • subjected to compression during abduction and internal rotation
deceleration phase
Deceleration Phase
  • begins after ball release and after maximal internal rotation in shoulder
  • early stages characterized by
    • rapid shoulder external rotation
    • transverse abduction
deceleration phase1
Deceleration Phase
  • late stages characterized by
    • trunk rotation
    • internal shoulder rotation
    • maintenance of shoulder abduction
    • the tendency to transversely abduct shoulder
  • muscles active
    • deltoid
    • latissimus dorsi
    • trapezius
    • supraspinatus
shoulder girdle muscles as movers
Shoulder Girdle Musclesas Movers
  • often the initiator for movement
    • elevation lifting
    • depression push downward
    • protraction reaching, throwing, push fwd
    • retraction pulling backward
    • upward rotation ROM overhead reaching
    • downward rotation force shoulder adduction
shoulder girdle muscles as stabilizers
Shoulder Girdle Musclesas Stabilizers
  • shoulder girdle often used to provide a stable base on which muscles of shoulder joint may pull

agonist = deltoid

antagonist = latissimus dorsi

stabilizer(s) = trapezius

to hold shoulder girdle

in place so the deltoid can

pull the humerus up

neutralizer = teres minor

if latissimus dorsi is active then the

shoulder will tend to internally rotate

so the teres minor can be used to

counteract this via its ability to

externally rotate the shoulder

SHOULDER ABDUCTION

shoulder girdle muscles
Shoulder Girdle Muscles

levator scapulae

trapezius

rhomboids

serratus anterior

pectoralis major

pectoralis minor

subclavius

slide18

Actions of the Scapula

Rhomboids

Trapezius

Levator Scapulae

Rhomboids

Trapezius

Levator Scapulae

Trapezius

Pectoralis Minor

Serratus Anterior

Pectoralis Minor

Trapezius

Serratus Anterior

Rhomboids

Pectoralis Minor

Levator Scapulae

movements of shoulder
Movements of shoulder
  • flexion - extension
  • abduction - adduction
  • medial and lateral rotation
    • aka internal and external rotation
  • transverse abduction - adduction
slide20

coracobrachialis

Shoulder Flexion

Anterior

Deltoid

Pectoralis Major

Clavicular Head

slide21

Shoulder Extension

NOTE: If no external

resistance -- gravity acts

as primary mover and

flexors antagonistically

control movement

slide22

Shoulder Extension

NOTE: If no external

resistance -- gravity acts

as primary mover and

flexors antagonistically

control movement

slide23

Shoulder Abduction

supraspinatus

middle deltoid

slide24

Shoulder

Adduction

teres major

latissimus dorsi

NOTE: If no resistance --

then gravity acts as primary

mover with shoulder

abductors antagonistically

controlling movement

slide25

Shoulder Adduction

pectoralis major --

sternal portion

NOTE: If no resistance --

then gravity acts as primary

mover with shoulder

abductors antagonistically

controlling movement

slide26

Shoulder Girdle

Muscles

Trapezius

slide27

Shoulder Girdle

Muscles

Serratus Anterior

slide28

Shoulder Girdle

Muscles

Levator

Scapulae

Rhomboid Minor

Rhomboid Major

slide29

Shoulder Girdle

Muscles

Subclavius

Pectoralis

Minor

slide30

Medial Rotation of

the Shoulder

teres major

primary muscles -- although on posterior side insert anteriorly on humerus

subscapularis

slide31

Lateral Rotation of Shoulder

infraspinatus

teres minor

primary muscles on posterior side insert posteriorly on humerus

slide32

Horizontal Adduction

of the Shoulder

coracobrachialis

anterior

deltoid

pectoralis major

(both heads)

slide33

Horizontal

Shoulder Abduction

middle deltoid

infraspinatus

teres minor

posterior deltoid

loads on shoulder complex
Loads on Shoulder Complex
  • majority of loads supported through shoulder (glenohumeral) joint
  • loads from outstretched arm
    • segmental weight acts through segmental center of mass
    • moment arm of segmental weight is the perpendicular distance b/w weight’s line of action and a
slide35

Loads on Outstretched Arms

segmental weight acts

thru segmental center

of mass

moment arms

a = 0 cm

b = 20 cm

c = 30 cm

shoulder torque

A. 0 N cm

B. 700 N cm

C. 1050 N cm

C

moment arm is

perpendicular distance

b/w line of action of weight

and line parallel through axis

of rotation

B

A

if segment weight = 35 N

c

b

slide36

upper arm weight = 20 N

forearm weight = 15 N

B

A

Position A

torque = 20 N * 15 cm

+ 15 N * 30 cm

= 750 N cm

Position B

torque = 20 N * 15 cm

+ 15 N * 15 cm

= 525 N cm

15 cm

30 cm

slide37

Fm

wt

dm

if

: arm weighs 33 N

: arm CM is 30 cm from

shoulder axis

: deltoid pulls along a line 3 cm

away from shoulder axis

to hold arm steady must

balance the torques so the

sum of the torques = 0

0 = (Fm)(3 cm) - (33 N)(30 cm)

Fm = (33 N) ( 30 cm)/(3 cm) = 330 N

slide38

Fm

wt

dm

joint reaction force will equal

the muscular force pulling on

bone so

330 N of compressive force

acting on shoulder

if a person has a mass of 70 kg

then their weight = 686 N

so compressive force is about

48% of body weight