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Schedule/Announcements E4 is a week from today, Tuesday 2/20 Thursday, 2/22 (first lecture on U5, CPU8) Hand back E4 Hand out ME1 study objectives ME1 is the following Tuesday, 2/27 ME1 covers Units 1-4 (not U5)

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schedule announcements
  • E4 is a week from today, Tuesday 2/20
  • Thursday, 2/22 (first lecture on U5, CPU8)
    • Hand back E4
    • Hand out ME1 study objectives
  • ME1 is the following Tuesday, 2/27
    • ME1 covers Units 1-4 (not U5)
    • If you missed an exam, you must take ME1 or the missing exam score turns into a zero
    • If you have taken all the exams to date, I will replace your lowest exam score with the ME score
    • If you are satisfied with your exam scores to date, you get the day off
    • There will be no ME for ME1
u4 college teaching and teaching technology
U4 College Teaching and Teaching Technology
  • Behavioral analysis of college teaching and student study behavior
  • Direct Instruction used primarily in elementary and secondary schools
  • Precision Teaching
  • Headsprout: web-based reading program for children created by behavior analysts
unit 4 college teaching
Unit 4: College Teaching
  • Behavioral analysis of college teaching and student studying behavior
    • Article by Dr. Jack Michael, help explain
      • Why PSY professors administer more exams and require more assignments than professors in other departments typically do
      • Why I structure PSY 4600 the way I do with study objectives, frequent essay examinations and hand out a grade sheet
      • Why, from a behavioral perspective, your study behavior may differ in this class vs. other classes
      • Why some (most of us) procrastinate - when studying for exams, writing papers, preparing conference presentations, etc.
introduction overview to the michael article
Introduction/Overview to the Michael article
  • The teaching technology discussed in the article is relevant for the “typical” college class with a course enrollment of 35-40 or more and a clear “factual content.”
  • It is not relevant for fine arts (dance, sculpting, painting, writing) or other skill training such as public speaking, mechanics, etc.
  • While this technology can be used with small classes (15 or fewer students), there are also methods that can be equally effective
  • Most university classes at colleges and universities are the type discussed in the article
overview of michael article cont
Overview of Michael article, cont.
  • Begins by discussing student motivation to study. That is, what types of factors motivate students to study hard?
  • He discusses a number of factors that are often mentioned by individuals (intrinsic interest in the subject matter, approval/disapproval of others in the study setting, short-term payoffs, long-range payoffs of learning the material, etc.)
  • He argues against each one, concluding that the course grade is the only effective motivational variable and the only one over which the instructor has control.
overview cont
Overview, cont.
  • However, even the grade will not be an effective motivator if the grade is not important to the student
  • He further states that if the grade is not important to the student, then there is nothing an instructor can do to motivate students to study
  • Many say that grades should not be emphasized - Michael disagrees with that perspective - the grade is the only motivative factor that the instructor has under his/her control and thus should be emphasized
overview cont7
Overview cont.
  • Next, he describes how to structure a course so that the course grade is an effective motivator
  • Three features that must be present in order for students to study hard (SO 12, but stated positively):
    • The grade must be important to the student
    • The exam/assignmentgrades must be closely (and explicitly) linked to the course grade; and
    • Studying must be closely (and explicitly) linked to the exam/assignment grades

(how many, assignment/quiz, have no idea how it relates to final grade - 10%, 20%,

maybe checkmark; how many I didn’t study at all, aced the test; I studied very hard

and didn’t have a clue? 2 exams - chapter 4 - graduate course - didn’t know passed/failed)

so 1 creativity
SO 1: Creativity?
  • This type of course structure is very controversial and has been criticized for a number of reasons
  • The first criticism: This type of course does not teach creativity or new knowledge, but only teaches students how to parrot back old knowledge.
  • Michael’s response?

Creativity requires an extensive familiarity with what is already known - an extensive knowledge base about which one can be creative.

For example, If you don’t understand reinforcement, punishment, shaping, etc., you cannot create an effective instructional system or develop an effective training program for individuals with developmental disabilities.

(need to knowthe basics so you have something to be creative about)

so 2 what is the two for one rule what does it imply for getting an a or a b
SO 2:What is the two for one rule? What does it imply for getting an A or a B?
  • In order to get a C in a course, students should spend 2 hours outside class studying for every hour in class.
    • 3 credit hour course: 2 x 3 = 6 hours outside of class studying (each and every week) to get a C
    • Full credit load of 12-15 credit hours, students should be studying 36-45 hours per week for C-level performance
    • MORE than 2 hours of study per credit hour should required for an A or B. For example, 3 hours outside per credit hour, 9-10 hours.

(most don’t require that, this class - 6 hours per unit)

SO 3: What are two main problems with intrinsic interest in the subject matter as a motivational factor?
  • While the subject matter may indeed be interesting to students, it is usually not sufficiently interesting to maintain the amount of study required to master the material
    • Love behavior analysis, love 460, but that is not likely to maintain 9-12 hours of studying each week
  • Competing activities that are not postponable while studying is. You can “always study tomorrow” - but sometimes tomorrow never comes
    • Friend drops by - let’s go out
    • Baby/child gets sick
    • Football game/play isn’t available at any other time

(in general, second reason is main reason, be sure to include - not postponable)

so 4 why is it that short term advantages from the newly acquired material do not motivate studying
SO 4: Why is it that short-term advantages from the newly acquired material do not motivate studying?
  • Many content courses, unlike automobile mechanics, do not have many short-term advantages to the student; rather
  • They are important for further learning
    • You can’t run before you can walk
    • You can’t master the material in 460 unless you have mastered the material in 360
    • You can’t master algebra unless you master arithmetic

(Both points are important if I ask this on the exam!)

(note the italics!)

SO 5: Briefly describe the weakness of long- range payoffs related to the details of the study assignment.
  • It is easy to believe that you can contribute to the human condition - that is, be a successful behavior analyst - without understanding the specific details of the study assignment
    • It is easy to believe that you can be an effective human service worker, OBM practitioner, clinical psychologist, etc. without knowing SOs 5, 14, 20 and 26 from Unit 4 in Dickinson’s PSY 460.

Note: the answer is not the delay or temporal remoteness, even though that is a problem as well.

so 6 so why are grades the best motivational factor to motivate student studying
SO 6: So why are grades the best motivational factor to motivate student studying?
  • It is the one motivational factor over which the instructor has control - the only one (we can’t control intrinsic interest, we can’t control whether others in the environment support scholarly performance, etc.)
  • It can be easily related to the details of the study assignment (we can make SOs 5, 14, & 20 from U4 important by relating them to the exam/assignment)
  • It is a factor of considerable strength - that is, it is important to most students as evidenced by the intensity of study/work right before an exam or right before an assignment is due

(Three points)


SO 7: Vicious vs. Friendly Competition and their relationship to norm-referenced vs. criterion- referenced grading practices.

  • Many criticize emphasizing grades because it generates “competition” and competition is bad.
  • Michael distinguishes between “vicious” and “friendly” competition, and agrees that “vicious” competition is, indeed, bad, but “friendly” competition is not.
  • He then describes grading practices that produce “vicious” competition and those that produce “friendly” competition.
  • Norm-referenced grading practices produce vicious competition and hence should not be adopted, while criterion-referenced grading practices produce “friendly” competition which is OK.
so 7 norm referenced grading produces vicious competition
SO 7: Norm-referenced grading produces vicious competition
  • Norm-referenced grading
    • The grade you receive depends not only on your grade but the grades of other students in the class
    • Grading on a curve: 10% of the students get As, 20% get Bs, 50% or so get Cs
    • If one student gets an A, it decreases the opportunity for another student to get an A
    • This produces vicious competition between students; you may be happy when someone doesn’t get an A or a B; you are not as likely to help someone - if you do, that person may get an A, which decreases the opportunity for you to get an A
    • In fact, some students may actually engage in behaviors that will harm another’s student chance to get an A (steal relevant books from the library)

(physio course, comp exams)

so 7 criterion referenced grading produces friendly competition
SO 7: Criterion-referenced grading produces friendly competition
  • Criterion-referenced grading
    • The grade you get depends only on your grade; not on the grades other students get
    • Dickinson’s PSY 460 grading practices; any student who gets 92% of the points, gets an A.
    • Friendly competition: Student wants to have the highest point score in the class or a student wants to “beat out” another student.
    • But this does not produce the type of competition that makes a student rejoice in the misfortune of other students or refuse to help another student because it might decrease his/her own grade.
so 8 study procrastination scallop
SO 8: Study procrastination scallop
  • Many people maintain that an exam or assignment is an example of a FI schedule of reinforcement, which produces the typical scallop of responding. (not much behavior in the beginning of the interval, more and more behavior as the interval progresses and reinforcement gets close).
  • Not so! And the reasons are the same as the reasons we examined last unit with respect to why a paycheck is not an example of a FI schedule.
  • So how do we explain the scallop in studying/working that occurs right before the exam?
  • How is that scallop behavior related to the exam grade and the course grade?
so 8 continued procrastination scallop
SO 8 Continued: Procrastination Scallop
  • To understand this, it helps to know that the analysis Michael presents is a molecular analysis.
  • Underlying position that if a consequence follows a behavior by more than 5 to 60 seconds, it is not a direct-acting contingency; that is, that consequence cannot directly affect the behavior as reinforcement, punishment, etc.
  • Rather the effect that the consequence has is due to other variables, such as verbal behavior.
  • Michael is a molecular behavior analyst (as most others in the department) and thus explains the procrastination scallop using a molecular analysis where the consequence of studying must occur within 5 to 60 seconds after the behavior of studying
so 8 procrastination scallop a molecular behavioral analysis
SO 8: Procrastination Scallop, A molecular behavioral analysis
  • The relationship between two factors affects studying (Note carefully, not just one or the other!)
    • Task completion: how much of the task the student has completed
    • Time passage: the time left before the exam or assignment
  • Task completion and time passage together determine the aversiveness of the situation at any point in time in the interval relevant to the exam/assignment

(be careful not to put this in your own words)

so 8 continued
SO 8 Continued
  • To have completed most of the task and have a good deal of time left is “safe” or “nonaversive”
  • But to have completed very little of the task and have very little time left is a condition that is dangerous or “aversive”
  • It is the aversiveness that generates escape behavior
  • Usually, the only relevant form of escape under these circumstances is studying (or working on the assignment)
  • The reinforcement for studying is the escape from the aversiveness - the change in status to a less “dangerous” condition with respect to the task-time relationship
  • That is, the studying behavior decreases the existing aversive condition - the decrease in the aversiveness is an immediate negatively reinforcing consequence
so 8 what reinforces studying
SO 8: What reinforces studying?
  • The reinforcement for studying is NOT the avoidance of a bad grade on the exam/assignment
    • The grade is too delayed, it does not occur within 5 - 60 seconds after studying
  • To repeat: The reinforcement for studying is the decrease in the pre-existing aversive condition; immediate negative reinforcement (escape)

MO (aversiveness):R (studying)-->Sr- escape

(decrease in aversiveness)

As soon as you study, there is a decrease in the aversiveness.

SO 8: What produces the scallop? That is why do (most) students study more and more as the time interval passes?
  • Because the aversiveness increases as the time interval passes and they have not completed the task/assignment
  • That is, the pre-existing aversiveness becomes stronger and stronger the closer the exam if students have not completed the assignment.

(last slide on this)

so 9 end of course activity
SO 9: End-of-Course Activity

Why does an end-of-course activity (like a final exam or paper worth 50%-75% of the student’s grade) weaken the relation between the exam grades and the course grades?

Students can quite correctly believe that a low score on an earlier exam or assignment can be compensated for by a high score on the final exam or paper.

But what often happens? You run out of time because all of your courses “kick in at the end.”

So no final exam in Dickinson’s PSY 460!!!

SO 10: Reasons professors give for their unwillingness to clearly specify what is going to be on the exam
  • Many professors are highly critical of study objectives on the grounds that we are “spoon feeding” students.
  • Professors often give two reasons for not wanting to specify what is going to be on the exam
    • You will only learn what the professor tells you to learn; without specification you will learn all of the other things you wouldn’t learn if you didn’t know what was going to be on the exam
      • Dickinson says not so! If you are examined over 4-5 chapters, do you really learn everything in those 4-5 chapters?
    • Part of the scholar’s repertoire consists of bringing order out of chaos and dealing with the instructor’s vague assignments is a good opportunity to learn this skill
      • Not so again!!! (read material out of “interest”)
so 11 in large enrollment classes what controls attendance and what does not control attendance
SO 11: In large enrollment classes what controls attendance and what does NOT control attendance?
  • What does control attendance?

How essential the lecture material is for doing wellon the exam - (note material in red!)

  • What does NOT control attendance?

How interesting or inspirational the lectures are

Faculty do not have to do “dog and pony shows” to get students to attend class.

Of course, all things being equal, interesting is better than boring!


so 12 the three conditions under which the threat of a low grade will not motivate studying
SO 12: The three conditions under which the threat of a low grade will NOT motivate studying
  • If the grade is not important to the student
  • The relation between the exam grade and the course grade is not clear
  • The relation between studying for the exam and the grade on the exam is not clear
so 14 exam frequency and motivation to study
SO 14: Exam frequency and motivation to study

Provide two reasons why exams that are given once every three weeks (let alone two exams per semester) will not have the same motivational effect as exams that are given weekly.

1. The procrastination scallop: most students will wait to study until the week of the exam

If I require 6 or more hours of outside studying for each exam (for a C), if I gave an exam every three weeks instead of every 1 1/2 weeks, it would require 12 or more hours of study. If I gave just a mid-term and final, that would be about 7 weeks or about 4.5 units, which would require 27 hours or more of studying.

It is absurd to think that students will spend 27 hours studying for the exam during that one week.

(one reason why professors use norm-referenced grading - no one does well)


SO 14: Second reason why exams that are givenonce every three weeks (let alone twice a semester)will not have the same motivational effect as weekly exams.

2. I have 1 1/2 hours for the exam, regardless of how often I give the exams. If I gave an exam only once every three weeks, I could not sample as much material from the study objectives - that is I could not ask questions over as many of the study objectives

  • Why and how does this affect student studying?

Students know that I cannot test over all of the study objectives, hence they will begin to try to guess which ones I will ask and not study all of the objectives. They will “gamble” about which items I will have test questions over

(also less accurate assessment for me, but that is not related to student studying, faculty

Who give out 70 or more SOs for the exam and then only ask questions on very small


so 15 why learning can t be fun and easy
SO 15: Why learning can’t be fun and easy
  • Many argue that learning should be fun and easy. Not so, says Michael. He says it can’t be fun and easy for two reasons.
    • Intensity: there is too much to learn in too little time
    • Assessment: there is a chance that the student will not get the grade he/she wants on the exams and assignments

Note carefully, it is NOT simply that the exams and assignments are given - if every student got an A on every exam/assignment, then assessment would not cause students a problem

(Learn each factor and be able to explain them.)

not for exam but why should grades be emphasized
Not for exam but why should grades be emphasized?

Grades are the primary motivative variable, which means that current standing in the class and progress toward the final grade should always be clear and frequently brought to the student’s attention.

Hence, the grade sheet.

unit 4 teaching technology introduction
Unit 4: Teaching Technology Introduction

In this part of the unit we are going to be looking at three empirically-based instructional technologies for primary and secondary schools:

  • Direct Instruction - Engelmann, Becker & Carnine
  • Precision Teaching - Lindsley
  • Headsprout - a relatively new web-based reading program developed by a team of behavior analysts (2002)
    • Greg Stikeleather, Dept. alumni award

(empirically-based, proven through research to be effective, Croyden schools?)

Engelmann, BA in education. Becker & Carnine - behavioral psychologists; Advantage Academy downtown; Oakland Academy - Foundation for behavioral resources)

teaching technology intro continued
Teaching Technology Intro continued
  • Educational crisis in this country
  • Our students rank about last in math/science of all industrialized countries in the world
  • 40% of our 4th-graders read below basic levels
  • Yet schools and educators have been very slow to adopt empirically-validated instructional technology in the schools
  • Probably the biggest disappointment of behavior analysts
  • But, there is hope: No Child Left Behind
  • Carnine is an advisor to President Bush

(read some of the material in the course pack - not behavior analysts)

direct instruction basics
Direct Instruction Basics
  • Task analysis is completed for all instructional material
  • Material is presented in small steps so students will be successful the first time
  • Material is sequenced so if students master the prerequisite material they will be successful
  • Scripts are used to insure correct implementation and student success - based on research
  • Students are placed in small groups of 5 - 10
  • Students respond aloud on cue
  • Immediate feedback, both reinforcement and corrective is provided
precision teaching basics
Precision Teaching Basics
  • Often use DI material/lessons
  • Adds a fluency component - accuracy plus speed of responding is assessed (# corrects per minute). Based on rate of response used in behavioral research
  • Timed practice, graph results - only 30% of time is spent on instruction, 70% on practice
  • Students work with each other during practice sessions
  • Students do not progress to the next lesson until fluency “aims” are met - all have the same aims which are based on research
  • Often combined with a token economy system in which students earn points for results and appropriate instructional behaviors (feet on floor, eye contact, etc.)
  • Often report cards are provided for parents daily

(before SO16, show you some results of DI, PT: SOs a little out of order)

so17 introduction to englemann s early study 1970
SO17: Introduction to Englemann’s early study (1970)
  • Some maintain that 60-80% of “intelligence” is genetic and only 20-40% is a function of learning; that is you have it or you don’t and if your parents and grandparents didn’t have it, you won’t either (Bell Curve, Murray & Herrnstein)
  • They also maintain that a person’s IQ cannot be changed much after the first couple of years
  • Therefore, early educational programs (such as Head Start) and social programs are a waste of tax payer dollars.

(What is intelligence? What is measured by IQ tests? Math, verbal, social situations

and sequences)

so17 englemann s early study 1970
SO17: Englemann’s early study (1970)
  • Participants were all 4 years old:
    • 15 disadvantaged children exposed to traditional teaching methods
    • 15 disadvantaged children exposed to DI
    • 15 middle class children exposed to DI
  • Independent variable:
    • DI for language concept, arithmetic, and reading
    • Three 20-min instructional sessions per day for two years
    • Total of 96 instructional hours
  • Dependent variable:
    • Stanford-Binet IQ test scores
  • Experimental design:
    • Between-group experimental design
so17 summary of results
SO17: Summary of Results
  • IQ scores after two years
    • Disadvantaged four-year olds exposed to DI increased their IQ scores by about 25 points: from 95.33 to 121.08
    • Disadvantaged four-year olds exposed to traditional education increased their IQ scores by only about 5 points: from 94.50 to 99.61
    • Disadvantaged and advantaged four-year olds exposed to DI had similar IQ scores: 121.08 and 123.43, respectively
so17 implications
SO17: Implications
  • IQ scores can be affected by instruction and changed after the very early stages of life (argues against heredity)
  • DI can eliminate differences in the IQ scores of disadvantaged and advantaged children, differences that are not eliminated via traditional educational methods
snyder article morningside academy seattle wa
Snyder Article: Morningside Academy, Seattle, WA
  • Morningside Academy
    • Private school (tuition): Dr. Kent Johnson
    • Combines Precision Teaching with Direct Instruction
    • Dr. Johnson offers 2-4 week practicum opportunities in the summer to graduate students (web site address is in the SOs)
      • While usually restricted to graduate students, our WMU undergraduates have been accepted, depending upon letters of support from us
      • One of our undergrads attended the 4-week practicum last summer
      • Scholarships, but students must fund their own housing and meals
morningside academy cont
Morningside Academy, cont.
  • Money-back guarantee for tuition (SO 18)
    • If a student does not gain at least two years or more in all skill-deficit areas in one year, Morningside refunds 100% of the tuition
  • Success rate (SO 18, but years different than article)
    • In the 25 years of its operations, Morningside has never refunded a student’s tuition
  • Serves primarily students diagnosed with learning disability problems and ADHD who are failing in the regular school system; also has a program for adults who are not literate. (SO19)

(years different because the article was published in 1992)

morningside academy cont again
Morningside Academy, cont. again
  • SO 20: Average gains in grade levels for reading, language arts, and math for the last two years reported in the article (89-90 and 90-91)?

3.07 per academic year!!

Note that these gains are primarily for at-risk kids.

Those diagnosed as learning disabled or ADHD.

morningside academy s adult literacy program
Morningside Academy’s Adult Literacy Program
  • Federally-funded literacy program through YMCA
  • Pilot program for adults, Precision Teaching
    • Did not know whether adults would like PT and thus attend instructional sessions
    • Did not know how well PT would work with these individuals, given their generally low skill levels
  • 32 participants
    • Some were homeless
    • Some were in and out of jail
so 21 what guarantee does morningside make its adult clients based on results
SO 21: What guarantee does Morningside make its adult clients based on results?

Each adult learner will gain two years or more per month in reading, writing and math skills if those adults meet the requirement of attending for two hours per day, four days a week.

Notice that is only 20 hours of instruction per month!

(now back to SO 16)

so16 three reasons why traditional educators object to direct instruction precision teaching
SO16: Three reasons why traditional educators object to Direct Instruction & Precision Teaching

If these methods are so good, why aren’t they being taught in schools of education and why don’t teachers like them?

  • They are not self-directed; that is the methods are too controlled by the teacher
  • They are not individualized; every child/learner is exposed to the same material in the same sequence and must meet the same goals
  • They do not focus on affective outcomes - that is, self-esteem or making students “feel good about themselves.
  • Teachers feel the scripted lessons take away from their flexibility and creativity. Why did I go to school and get a teaching degree if I am being told exactly what to say and when to say it? (not in study objectives - not required)

(philosophical reasons - educational philosophy child centered learning development)

4th reason a practical, not philosophical reason, Siefert article; teacher’s resent it because

It is so scripted; but is it about me being happy or the students learning?)

so22 what factors are often blamed for the educational crisis
SO22: What factors are often blamed for the educational crisis?
  • Traditional educators tend to blame Johnny or Suzie, the culture at large, socio-economic reasons - Johnny can’t read because he comes from a bad neighborhood or bad home.
  • Traditional educators often see the key(s) to be a longer school year, higher pay for teachers, right now no recess, etc.
  • DI & PT advocates maintain that the key to solving the educational crisis in this country is better instructional material: If Johnny or Suzie is not learning the instructional material is the blame, not Johnny, Suzie or their home environment

(while I am going to get in trouble - the rat is always right! Lab - lever)

Neither they nor their instruction is at fault: part of their student-centered philosophy.)

so 25 what is fluency
SO 25: What is fluency?
  • The rationale behind fluency first
    • We usually measure only accuracy of performance - 100%, 90%, etc.
    • Rate of performance or fluency is also important
    • If one child scores 100% on a math test and completes it in one hour, but another scores 100% and completes it in one-half hour, is their performance equal or is the second child’s performance better?
  • PT not only measures accuracy but also speed of performance
  • Only 30% of classroom time is taken by the delivery of instruction; 70% is spent practicing using work sheets.
  • Students take several 1-minute timings and chart their performance on a graph for the timings
  • So, back to the question, what is fluency? (next slide)
so25 fluency
SO25: Fluency

So, SO25A, what is fluency?

“Fluency” is a measure of accuracy plus speed.

And, SO25B, how is fluency specifically measured?

The number of correct answers per minute and the number of incorrect answers per minute during timed practice.

not for the exam fluency aims standards goals
Not for the exam: Fluency Aims (standards/goals)

Fluency aims are based on research to:

  • Insure retention/maintenance over time
  • Enable the skill to generalize to settings other than the one in which it was taught
    • If you teach basic math, you want kids to be able to buy things and count correct change
  • Enable correct responding in spite of distractions in the environment and in spite of being “tired.”

Because aims are empirically developed to achieve the above results, aims are not individualized. Every child must meet the same aims before proceeding to the next lesson/material.

so26 rationale for scripted lessons
SO26: Rationale for scripted lessons
  • In DI, every lesson is scripted and the teacher is to follow the script exactly
  • Why?

The particular wording, examples and sequences have been pre-tested to insure the success of the students.

Not for the exam, but teachers do not have the time, nor is it their job, to conduct research on instructional material. They are practitioners not researchers They already have a very difficult, time-consuming job (and class sizes are getting larger all the time).

sos 27 31 introduction to watkins article on project follow through not for the exam
SOs 27-31: Introduction to Watkins’ article on Project Follow-Through (not for the exam)
  • Largest study that has evaluated the effectiveness of different instructional systems
  • Government-funded study
  • Conducted over 30 years ago
  • The study began in 1968 and we have had the results since 1977
sos 27 31 project follow through cont
SOs 27-31: Project Follow-Through, cont.
  • Three major conceptual categories of educational systems
    • Basic Skills
    • Cognitive-Conceptual
    • Affective-Cognitive
  • Examined 20 different instructional methods that fell into one of the three categories above in 15 different school districts
sos 27 28 primary areas of emphasis for each major conceptual category and the category for di
SOs 27&28: Primary areas of emphasis for each major conceptual category and the category for DI
  • Basic Skills (DI)
    • “Basic skills”: reading, arithmetic, spelling, etc.
  • Cognitive-Conceptual
    • Learning to learn
    • Problem solving skills
  • Affective-Cognitive
    • Development of good self-concept and positive attitudes toward learning
    • Learning to learn
so29 results i have asked you to learn
SO29: Results I have asked you to learn

To be fair to each model, the researchers also measured the childrens’ basic skills, cognitive skills, and affect

  • DI was the only model to produce gains in all three areas measured: basic skills, cognitive skills, and affect
  • DI ranked first in basic skills, cognitive skills and affect
  • Educational models, other than those that fell into the Basic Skills category, (that is, all those in the cognitive-conceptual and affective-cognitive categories) had poorer results than the traditional educational systems currently being used
SO30: DI & PT ranked first and second in affective skills even though neither targets or emphasizes them

What theory of self-concept isn’t supported by these results?

In order to learn, you must first have a good self-concept and a positive attitude toward learning. That is, a good self-concept is a prerequisite for learning.

Suzie & Johnny must feel good about themselves before they can learn.

What theory of self-concept is supported by the results?

Success in learning produces a good self concept.

Suzy & Johnny will feel good about themselves if they are successful in learning.

(pretty interesting given that the affective-cognitive models targeted affect directly. Also interesting because traditional educators still object to DI& PT on that ground)

so31 behavioral diagram of the relation between learning and a good self concept
SO31: Behavioral diagram of the relation between learning and a good self-concept


R ---->

Academic activities


Signs of success





(self-concept emotional response)

project follow through wrap up not for the exam
Project Follow-Through Wrap Up (not for the exam)
  • DI was shown to be the most effective instructional system
  • In spite of that, the governmental agency responsible for disseminating effective instructional systems to school districts around the country, endorsed 22 as effective and packaged them for distribution
  • Among those disseminated were those that had failed to improve academic achievement (out of “fairness”)
  • Funding guidelines were changed so that the programs that were the least successful were given more funding than those that were the most successful (on the grounds that $ would help the least successful)

(problem is not just the teachers, school districts)

sos 32 39 headsprout a web based reading program designed by behavioral psychologists
SOs 32-39: Headsprout, a web-based reading program designed by behavioral psychologists
  • Headsprout founders and team includes:
    • Dr. Kent Johnson, founder of Morningside
    • Greg Stikeleather, BA in psychology from WMU
      • Developed and ran Apple Computer’s first usability testing laboratory
      • Started two software companies; one was acquired by Microsoft, one was acquired by Netscape
    • Dr. Joe Layng, Head of Morningside’s Malcolm X program
    • Dr. Janet Twyman, current President of ABA
    • Kelly Hobbins, BA in psychology from WMU
  • Put on the web in 2002
  • Cost $6 million to develop the first 40 lessons (the initial program put on the web)

(SOs are very straightforward, but I just wanted to introduce you to this

- it’s terrific, web page)

sos 32 34 why is headsprout important
SOs 32 & 34: Why is Headsprout important?
  • How many children have literacy problems in our country?
    • 40%
  • Over what percentage of our nation’s fourth graders score below basic reading levels?
    • 40%
  • What is the probability that a child will remain a poor reader at the end of fourth grade if the child is a poor reader at the end of first grade?
    • 90%

We need to get to children when they are young and teach them the basics

sos 33 headsprout stresses phonics why learn the following points about phonics
SOs 33: Headsprout stresses phonics - why? Learn the following points about phonics
  • Research has shown that phonics is essential in order to teach children to read.
    • Not for the exam, but notice that this is in direct conflict with reading approaches based on “whole word” teaching/learning.
  • Research has also shown that the absence of explicit phonics instruction can cause learning problems that put learners at a permanent educational disadvantage unless corrected by the end of third grade.
about headsprout not for the exam
About Headsprout: Not for the exam
  • Incorporates PT concepts of fluency and charting/graphing performance of each component skill
  • On the surface, the program appears to children as
    • As in interactive cartoon
    • Learn reading skills interacting with cartoon-based episodes in Space World, Dinosaur World, Undersea World, and Jungle World
  • They have the same type of refund program as Morningside Academy
    • For school systems: Full refund to schools for the price of the product for each Kindergarten or 1st grade student who is not at or above grade level upon completion
    • Full refund to individual parents who buy it as well
about headsprout cont
About Headsprout, cont.
  • They first did lab testing - before they put the program on the internet. (not for the exam)

Standard for most activities was that 90% of learners would get 90% of the items correct the first time

  • SO37A: Once the developmental work in their lab was completed, they tested it on the internet. How many learners participated in the internet testing?
    • Over 1,000
  • SO37B: What were the results of that testing?
    • Over 90% of the learners got over 90% of the items correct
about headsprout cont again
About Headsprout, cont. again
  • SO38: What was their goal for the entire 80-lesson Headsprout Early Reading Program?
    • Learners who consistently score at or above grade level, and
    • Kindergarten children with reading skills typical of a mid-second grade learner
  • Standardized test outcome data from 16 initial children who completed the program suggest they have accomplished that goal (testing is on-going)
  • Individual parents can purchase the Headsprout reading program for $99.00 (last time I checked the price)

(last slide)

the end
The End
  • Questions?
  • Instructional assistance hours: Monday, 2/19
  • 7:00-8:00 PM
  • Megan is on tap this time