Schedule/Announcements E4 is a week from today, Tuesday 2/20 Thursday, 2/22 (first lecture on U5, CPU8) Hand back E4 Hand out ME1 study objectives ME1 is the following Tuesday, 2/27 ME1 covers Units 1-4 (not U5)
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(how many, assignment/quiz, have no idea how it relates to final grade - 10%, 20%,
maybe checkmark; how many I didn’t study at all, aced the test; I studied very hard
and didn’t have a clue? 2 exams - chapter 4 - graduate course - didn’t know passed/failed)
Creativity requires an extensive familiarity with what is already known - an extensive knowledge base about which one can be creative.
For example, If you don’t understand reinforcement, punishment, shaping, etc., you cannot create an effective instructional system or develop an effective training program for individuals with developmental disabilities.
(need to knowthe basics so you have something to be creative about)
(most don’t require that, this class - 6 hours per unit)
(in general, second reason is main reason, be sure to include - not postponable)
(Both points are important if I ask this on the exam!)
(note the italics!)
Note: the answer is not the delay or temporal remoteness, even though that is a problem as well.
SO 7: Vicious vs. Friendly Competition and their relationship to norm-referenced vs. criterion- referenced grading practices.
(physio course, comp exams)
(be careful not to put this in your own words)
MO (aversiveness):R (studying)-->Sr- escape
(decrease in aversiveness)
As soon as you study, there is a decrease in the aversiveness.
(last slide on this)
Why does an end-of-course activity (like a final exam or paper worth 50%-75% of the student’s grade) weaken the relation between the exam grades and the course grades?
Students can quite correctly believe that a low score on an earlier exam or assignment can be compensated for by a high score on the final exam or paper.
But what often happens? You run out of time because all of your courses “kick in at the end.”
So no final exam in Dickinson’s PSY 460!!!
How essential the lecture material is for doing wellon the exam - (note material in red!)
How interesting or inspirational the lectures are
Faculty do not have to do “dog and pony shows” to get students to attend class.
Of course, all things being equal, interesting is better than boring!
Provide two reasons why exams that are given once every three weeks (let alone two exams per semester) will not have the same motivational effect as exams that are given weekly.
1. The procrastination scallop: most students will wait to study until the week of the exam
If I require 6 or more hours of outside studying for each exam (for a C), if I gave an exam every three weeks instead of every 1 1/2 weeks, it would require 12 or more hours of study. If I gave just a mid-term and final, that would be about 7 weeks or about 4.5 units, which would require 27 hours or more of studying.
It is absurd to think that students will spend 27 hours studying for the exam during that one week.
(one reason why professors use norm-referenced grading - no one does well)
SO 14: Second reason why exams that are givenonce every three weeks (let alone twice a semester)will not have the same motivational effect as weekly exams.
2. I have 1 1/2 hours for the exam, regardless of how often I give the exams. If I gave an exam only once every three weeks, I could not sample as much material from the study objectives - that is I could not ask questions over as many of the study objectives
Students know that I cannot test over all of the study objectives, hence they will begin to try to guess which ones I will ask and not study all of the objectives. They will “gamble” about which items I will have test questions over
(also less accurate assessment for me, but that is not related to student studying, faculty
Who give out 70 or more SOs for the exam and then only ask questions on very small
Note carefully, it is NOT simply that the exams and assignments are given - if every student got an A on every exam/assignment, then assessment would not cause students a problem
(Learn each factor and be able to explain them.)
Grades are the primary motivative variable, which means that current standing in the class and progress toward the final grade should always be clear and frequently brought to the student’s attention.
Hence, the grade sheet.
In this part of the unit we are going to be looking at three empirically-based instructional technologies for primary and secondary schools:
(empirically-based, proven through research to be effective, Croyden schools?)
Engelmann, BA in education. Becker & Carnine - behavioral psychologists; Advantage Academy downtown; Oakland Academy - Foundation for behavioral resources)
(read some of the material in the course pack - not behavior analysts)
(before SO16, show you some results of DI, PT: SOs a little out of order)
(What is intelligence? What is measured by IQ tests? Math, verbal, social situations
(years different because the article was published in 1992)
3.07 per academic year!!
Note that these gains are primarily for at-risk kids.
Those diagnosed as learning disabled or ADHD.
1 month = 20 hours of instruction
Each adult learner will gain two years or more per month in reading, writing and math skills if those adults meet the requirement of attending for two hours per day, four days a week.
Notice that is only 20 hours of instruction per month!
(now back to SO 16)
If these methods are so good, why aren’t they being taught in schools of education and why don’t teachers like them?
(philosophical reasons - educational philosophy child centered learning development)
4th reason a practical, not philosophical reason, Siefert article; teacher’s resent it because
It is so scripted; but is it about me being happy or the students learning?)
(while I am going to get in trouble - the rat is always right! Lab - lever)
Neither they nor their instruction is at fault: part of their student-centered philosophy.)
So, SO25A, what is fluency?
“Fluency” is a measure of accuracy plus speed.
And, SO25B, how is fluency specifically measured?
The number of correct answers per minute and the number of incorrect answers per minute during timed practice.
Fluency aims are based on research to:
Because aims are empirically developed to achieve the above results, aims are not individualized. Every child must meet the same aims before proceeding to the next lesson/material.
The particular wording, examples and sequences have been pre-tested to insure the success of the students.
Not for the exam, but teachers do not have the time, nor is it their job, to conduct research on instructional material. They are practitioners not researchers They already have a very difficult, time-consuming job (and class sizes are getting larger all the time).
To be fair to each model, the researchers also measured the childrens’ basic skills, cognitive skills, and affect
What theory of self-concept isn’t supported by these results?
In order to learn, you must first have a good self-concept and a positive attitude toward learning. That is, a good self-concept is a prerequisite for learning.
Suzie & Johnny must feel good about themselves before they can learn.
What theory of self-concept is supported by the results?
Success in learning produces a good self concept.
Suzy & Johnny will feel good about themselves if they are successful in learning.
(pretty interesting given that the affective-cognitive models targeted affect directly. Also interesting because traditional educators still object to DI& PT on that ground)
Signs of success
(self-concept emotional response)
(problem is not just the teachers, school districts)
(SOs are very straightforward, but I just wanted to introduce you to this
- it’s terrific, web page)
We need to get to children when they are young and teach them the basics
Standard for most activities was that 90% of learners would get 90% of the items correct the first time