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PLAN

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  1. PLAN I. Traditional Security Studies *Security and Conflict *Military forces & superpower arms race II. Broadening the Focus: *Critical Security Studies

  2. Nonmilitary Responses to Conflict • Diplomacy, negotiation, mediation • Economic sanctions • Establishment of context of rules, norms, international organizations

  3. International Security Studies • Traditional Security Studies (TSS): • War & Peace, East/West conflict • Soldiers & diplomats (S. Hoffman, 1985) • Treaties & alliances • National security, military forces, superpower arms race • Critical Security Studies (CSS): • Regional & ethnic conflicts • Broadening the concept of “security”

  4. TSS & the Definition of National Security • The ability to protect the state’s territory, its autonomy and its borders from external threats (military, economic). • Acquire military capabilities in order to protect national sovereignty, i.e. limit insecurity by being prepared to meet a security threat

  5. I. Traditional Security Studies • Acquire leverages in international conflicts • Conventional military forces (armies, land mines, air forces, logistics) • Non-conventional military forces: WMD (nuclear, ballistic missiles, chemical and biological weapons)

  6. I. Continuity and Change • Change of military thinking & strategy, 1991 • Security dilemma, credibility of threats • Arms race, proliferation & security dilemma

  7. I. Conflict, Security & Strategy • Central concepts: deterrence, mutually assured destruction (MAD) • Nuclear strategy (offensive, defensive): • First-strike capability • Second-strike capability • Arms race as iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma • Reciprocity (retaliation)

  8. India & Pakistan’s Nuclear Arms Race (Prisoner’s Dilemma) Pakistan India

  9. I. Post-Cold War Issues • Role of non-state actors: new dynamics • Retaliation? No territory or cities to defend • Nuclear terrorism? • Role of states in nuclear proliferation: • Domestic production of nuclear weapons • Importance for regional conflicts (Arab-Israeli conflict, India/Pakistan, N/S Korea, China & Taiwan)

  10. I. Conflict & Security • Collective good problems: all states can lower contribution to collective goods (e.g. seek individual interest, collectivity is worse off) • Strategic choice: size of military budgets • Security regimes: e.g. Ballistic Missile Technology Control regime

  11. I. Controlling Proliferation • 1925 Geneva Protocol (chemical weapons) + 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention • 1972 Biological Weapons Convention • Non-Proliferation Treaty, 1968 • Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, 1972 • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT) • SALT 1, 1972 • SALT 2, 1979 • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I, 1991; START II, 1992) • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), 1996

  12. II. Critical Security Studies • Post-Cold War debate: 1990s (Krause & Williams, 1997) • Non-military threats to national security: environment, resources, health, etc… • Security dilemma vs. “Power-Security dilemma”, Buzan (1991)

  13. II. New Threats to National Security • Drugs, energy (Romm, 1993) • Environmental threats (since 1980s): • Resource conflicts (Westing, 1986; Mathews, 1987) • Food and water scarcity as threats to economic development (Korany, Brynen & Noble, 1993) • “Extended security”: conflict over economic, geopolitical, environmental, territorial issues (Dalby, 1997)

  14. II. Broadening the Concept of National Security • No agreed general definition (Buzan, 1991) • Threats to national security are actions that threaten to undermine severely the quality of life of a state’s inhabitants and that might significantly reduce political choices that are at the government’s disposal (Romm, 1993)

  15. II. Environmental Security • Protection of national resources • Interdependent issues: transnational environmental problems (global warming) & resource-based conflicts affect territorial integrity and political stability

  16. II. Environment & Security • Study relationship between military, security affairs and the environment (Deudney & Matthew, eds., 1999) • Linking military activities to environmental degradation (e.g., Gulf Wars) • Securitization of environmental problems (Buzan, Waever & de Wilde, 1998)

  17. II. Environment, Security & Conflict • Predictions for “coming anarchy” as more conflicts will be caused by environmental degradation (Kaplan, 1994) • Linking environmental change, resource scarcity and population growth to international conflict (Homer-Dixon, 1991 & 1994)

  18. II. Conflict & Environmental Stress • Homer-Dixon: advisor to Clinton Administration – controversial model • Environmental stress: scarcity of non-renewable resources • Deterministic analysis: environmental scarcity leads to violent conflicts (e.g, water wars in Middle East) • 1990s: US neo-Malthusian approach to international environmental problems

  19. II. Environment, Security & Conflict: Conclusions • Environmental problems as security concerns • Can lead to political instability • Impact on crisis but not in isolation from other variables