Learning APA Basics. Presented by: Annie Cawthon. What is APA?. American Psychological Association (APA) Used to provide consistency and uniformity in writing Originated in 1929 as a seven page article and is now a 440 page manual. (YEP…..the dreaded red and black 5 th edition APA book…..)
Presented by: Annie Cawthon
(Brenda Rowe’s NUR 420 website)
- Should be a concise statement of the main topic
- Use upper and lower case letters
- Avoid using abbreviations in the title
- Title should be at center of page
- Avoid using phrases such as “A Study of….” or “An Experimental Investigation of…”
- Recommended to be 10-12 words
• Author’s Name:
- Your first name, middle initial, and last name
- Omit titles and degrees (e.g. Dr., Professor, PhD, EdD)
• Institutional Affiliation:
-Georgia Baptist College of Nursing of Mercer University
- Located only on the title page!
- It is an abbreviation of the title
- Located flush left at top of the title page in ALL UPPERCASE LETTERS.
- Should not be more than 50 characters (including letters, spaces, and punctuation)
- Example on p. 306 in APA Manual
Steps: View Header/Footer Align right Type in 2 to 3 word portion of title insert 5 spaces click icon to insert page number. The manuscript header and appropriate page number will automatically be added to each sequential page, so you only have to go through the process once- when creating the title page.
1 author: Include author’s last name and year. Do not include month.
Ex: Walker (2004) discussed that…..
In a recent study...(Walker, 2004).
2 authors: Cite both names each time.
Ex: Walker and Rosen (2005) found that…..
In a recent study…(Walker & Rosen, 2005).
3, 4, 5 authors: Cite all authors the first time you use them, the each subsequent time, use the 1st author, followed by et al. (period after al & don’t use italics)
Example of 2, 3, or 4 authors:
1st time: Bradly, Ramirez, and Soo (1994)
Subsequent times: Bradly et al. (1994)
(*Omit the year from subsequent citations if within the same paragraph)
Ex: Bradly et al. found that…
6 or more authors: Cite 1st author followed by et al. (year) for first and subsequent citations.
--If you have two sources with authors who have the same last name, include the initials of the first author in all in-text citations, even if the year is different.
Ex: T. K. Lukes (personal communication, April 18, 2005) expressed….
…..(T. K. Lukes, personal communication, April 18, 2005).
Ex: 1st- Brown
Ex: 1st- MacArthur
2nd – M’Carthy
- Invert all names. Ex: Cawthon, A. L.
Ex: Cawthon, A. L., Weathersby, K. A., & Crow, K. E.
• When there is no author or editor, place the book title or organization in the author position (p. 249 APA Manual).
• Capitalize only the 1st word and proper nouns in the title and subtitle. Do not use quotation marks or italics.
(p. 240 APA Manual)
Ex: Responses to stimuli: Evidence for…
**Turn to p. 239 to view elements of a reference to a periodical**
- Sample paper on pp. 306- 320
- Appropriate use of numbers on pp.122-128
- How to cite a web address on p. 231
• Professor Summerville’s website (www.faculty.mercer.edu Summerville APA style guide link on left side of page)
(APA formatting and style guidelines)
(This site takes you to the online writing lab offered by Mercer University.
• Swilley Library (You can meet with someone from the writing lab. The writing lab can be found on the bottom floor of the library). Also, if you are in the library, stop by the reference desk and grab an APA pamphlet- “APA Style Guide and Checklist”
Cuddy, C. M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopedic Nursing, 21(5), 35-42.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.