Learning. Thoughts on Learning. “Learning is not compulsory. Neither is survival.” W. Edwards Demming “Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.” B.F. Skinner “I am always doing that which I cannot do, in order that I may learn how to do it.” Pablo Picasso.
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“Learning is not compulsory. Neither is survival.”
“Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.”
“I am always doing that which I cannot do, in order that I may learn how to do it.”
A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience
How does this happen?
Stimulus generalization is the extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to similar stimuli.
How does this happen?
Skinner defined operant learning as:
The mouse is “operating” on its environment by pressing the food lever in the Skinner box and receiving a food reward.
Shaping, or the method of successive approximations, is the process of teaching a new behavior by reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior.
Behavior is shaped by breaking down a desired behavior into smaller substeps (or approximations) then successively reinforcing each substep until the desired behavior is reached.
Learned association between US and CS
Organism is passive
Associate response and reinforcement
Organism is active
Responses emittedClassical versus Operant Conditioning
Observational learning is learning a behavior by observing or imitating the behavior of others (models). Behavior that has been rewarded is most likely to be imitated.
During observational learning, one learns by watching how others behavior is reinforced or punished, not one’s own behavior.
Operant learning, on the other hand, is learning directly from one’s own experience.
People learn social behaviors mainly through observation and cognitive processing of information, rather than through direct experience. Observational learning is the central tenet to this theory.
For observational learning to occur, one must