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ISLAMAPHOBIA. Islamaphobia . Myth 2 : “Jihad”. The Myth of the Islamic Threat Nermien Al-Ali (BA:Islamic Jurisprudence & Political Science, LLB/LLM). Basic Tenets of Islam. Myth 3: Islamic “Fundamentalism”. Myths. Myth 4: Islam & women. Myth 1 - Homogenous bloc.

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islamaphobia

ISLAMAPHOBIA

Islamaphobia

Myth 2 : “Jihad”

The Myth of the Islamic Threat

Nermien Al-Ali

(BA:Islamic Jurisprudence & Political Science, LLB/LLM)

Basic Tenets of Islam

Myth 3: Islamic

“Fundamentalism”

Myths

Myth 4: Islam & women

Myth 1 - Homogenous bloc

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia definition
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Definition
  • A phenomenon reported & studied in EU(UK), US, AUST., & Russia
  • A form of Xenophobia: phobic fear & hatred of what is ‘foreign’ or the ‘other’ because seen as a danger that threatens way of life
  • Islamaphobia: phobic fear for person, family, community, society, way of life, country, civilization of some Islamic threat
  • Mildest form - indulgence in seeing Islam as deplorable & not worthy of attention

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia features
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Features
  • Negative stereotypes about Islam as the next threat to western civilization after communism: “the enemy within” - “Islamic terrorists”, “A Holy War Heads Our Way”
  • Stereotypes of Muslims as barbaric, irrational, fanatic, supportive of terrorism, oppressive of women - simply: Anti-American
  • Works on deeply embedded cultural biases that rationalize & spread prejudices & stereotypes - “only natural”

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia consequences
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences

Prejudice Stereotyping

Hate Crimes: Verbal & Physical Abuse Vandalism & Arson of Mosques & shops

Murder

Defamation Slander Attack by Media

Profiling Breach of Civil liberties

Discrimnation Alienation

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia consequences5
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences

Source: www.CAIR-net.org

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia consequences6
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences

Source: www.CAIR-net.org

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia origins
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Origins

Based on deeply embedded cultural biases

  • Crusades & Inquisition - 11-16th: 5 Centuries of Holy War against infidels & heretics (Catholic Encyclopedia www.newadvent.org.cathen)
  • Renaissance 17-18th: Voltaire: excluded Muslims from the right to tolerance in his essay (Springboard)
  • Colonial times - up to 1960s- Orientalists portrayed Arabs & Muslims as barbarian & primitive to justify colonial conquests (Said)

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia feeds on myths
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 1: Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader

Myth 2: Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’

Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental!

Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

basic tenets general
BASIC TENETS: General
  • Islam means: Peace & Self-surrender to the Will of God
  • A universal message - confirms preceding Divine revelations. Prophet Mohamed is God’s messenger sent to complete & compliment previous revelations:
  • Abrahamic religion: “… it is the belief of your father Abraham. It is He (God) Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation)” 22:78
  • 6 pillars of faith and 5 pillars of religion

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

basic tenets pillars of faith
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Faith

6 Pillars of faith: To believe in

  • God
  • His angels
  • His Messengers (prophets)
  • His Books (Scriptures)
  • Day of Judgement
  • Fate & Destiny - good & bad

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

basic tenets pillars of islam
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam

5 Pillars of Practice

  • Testify (declare) that no gods but God and that Mohamed is His Messenger
  • Pray 5 times a day (Ritual - ablution)
  • Fast the month of Ramadan (lunar calendar)
  • Pay alms (2.5% of annual savings)
  • Pilgrimage to Mecca (Rituals traced to Abraham & Hajar)

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

basic tenets pillars of islam12
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam

PRAYER: Ruk’a

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islamaphobia feeds on myths15
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 1: Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 1 islam is a monolithic bloc
Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc
  • Around 1.4 Billion Muslims in the world - Only 18% are Arabs
  • Largest Muslim population in Indonesia 201M. 55M Russia, 100M India, 24 in EU, 7-10 US (2nd largest religion)
  • Muslims comprise 4000 ethnic groups in 128 countries
  • So-called Islamic nations are members of Islamic league
  • Muslims follow no single religious authority – no priesthood

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 1 islam is a monolithic bloc17
Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc

http://islamicweb.com/begin/population.htm

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 1 can be mobilized by a fatwa
Myth 1 - .. Can be mobilized by a ‘fatwa’
  • Fatwa is a non-binding juristic opinion usually passed by Muslim scholars to respond to a new situation. A fatwa that is contrary to Islamic ‘law’ is void prima facie
  • Sources of Islamic law/jurisprudence:

1. Quran: Actual words of God revealed to Prophet Mohamed through Gabriel remained & will remain unchanged

2. Hadith: Prophet teachings - authenticity 7000 of 600,000

3. Reasoning by Analogy (drugs)

4. Consensus

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia feeds on myths20
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 2: Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 2 islam condones violence against non muslims
Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims

Aggression is a vice in Islam

    • The Prophet defined the Muslim as one causing no verbal or physical harm to others
    • Islam’s greeting to everyone is “peace be upon you”
    • Murder of one person or causing devastation of any form is equated with killing all humanity
  • “Jihad”: Striving to do good for the sake of God - A broad concept
  • Coming from a battle the Prophet said to the Muslims: “You came from the minor ‘Jihad’ back to the major ‘Jihad’” Asked to explain, he replied: “Inner self ‘Jihad’”

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 2 islam condones violence against non muslims22
Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims

Even in cases of war

  • General: “Don’t fight those who don’t declare war on you for your faith or don’t attempt to take over your homeland” 60:8-9
  • “Fight for the sake of God (ie not for economic or political gain) those that fight you and do not attack first” ”
  • If the other side want peace then make peace 4:90, 8:61
  • If a member of the other side seeks asylum award it & ensure safety 9:6
  • Forbidden to kill the elderly, women, children, animals or to cut a tree

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 2 islam condones violence against non muslims23
Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims

Religious Tolerance most fundamental to Islam

  • “No compulsion in religion, Truth stands out clear from Wrong” 2:255-256 - Applies to Muslims & Non-Muslims
  • Christians & Jews called “People of the Scriptures” - under an Islamic state are regarded as “protected subjects” with complete autonomy
  • The Prophet’s Charter to the Monks of Sinai
  • Christians & Jews never persecuted for their beliefs in Islamic empire. Then & now Christians keep customs, start schools, visited by missionaries

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia feeds on myths24
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental!

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 3 terrorism is islamic a fundamentalist duty
Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty
  • “Fundamentalist” is meaningless - Used to denote Muslims that believe in Islam fundamentals support terrorism
  • Originally used to describe Protestants & other Christian groups adopting literal interpretation of the Bible
  • Terrorism : Defined as “devastation on land” “killing people & destroying crops”. Recognized as most heinous crime
  • Punishment for terrorism: execution, crucifixion or exile 5:33. Trial first.

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 3 terrorism is islamic a fundamentalist duty26
Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty
  • “Islamic terrorism” is an oxymoron
  • Terrorism as a phenomena - Hitler is of the Christian faith as Saddam is of Muslim faith
  • Terrorists justify their acts by citing authoritative sources: religion, the Constitution
  • Church of the World Creator (rejoiced 9/11)
  • Christian Identity Movement (many terrorist acts in 1996 - but FBI cant identify them as such) www.religiousintolerance.org/cr_ident.htm

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

islamaphobia feeds on myths27
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

‘Role captivity’

‘HAREM’

NO SELF-DETERMINATION

‘Chadour’

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 4 islam is oppressive of women
Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

LEADERS

Professional Working Women

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 4 islam is oppressive of women29
Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

General

  • Equality - “We created you from one self”
  • Taking care of home & children not obligatory. Housework is work - wages - 1991 law
  • Can divorce her husband if not like him
  • “If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal fairly (with them), then only one”4:3 “you cant be fair ..”

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 4 islam is oppressive of women30
Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

Economic rights

  • Seek education/knowledge is duty of every Muslim
  • Right to own & inherit property
  • Right to contract
  • Financial independence - “To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn” 4:32Political rights

Political Rights

  • Prophet confirmed as leader by men & women separately - mentioned in Quran 60:2

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 4 islam is oppressive of women31
Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

Islamic dress

  • A voluntary good deed - difference of opinion - part of the good deeds that women may take in their religious/spiritual devotion
  • Mentioned once in 24:31– basic principle is that of purity – emphasis first on lowering one’s gaze
  • Emphasis not on appearance but mainly on piety & conduct – 7:26.
  • No coercion or compulsion as to Islamic dress

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

myth 4 islam is oppressive of women32
Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

Panazir Bhutto Pakistan 88-90 & 93-5

Khaleda Zia Bangladesh 91-6

Tansu Ciller - Turkey 93-5

Megawati Sukamaputri Indonesia

Hasina Wajed Bangladesh 96+

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

references
References
  • Quran online: www.islamicity.com/mosque/quran
  • Index: www.islamicity.com/mosque/TOPICI.htm
  • Council on American Islamic Relations: www.Cair-net.org
  • www.themodernreligion.com/terror/terrorism_compare.html
  • Tolerance:http://salam.muslimsonline.com/~azahoor/toleran1.html
  • Women in Islam - www.mwlusa.org

Books

  • Patricia Springborg (of Sydney University), Western Republicanism and the Oriental Prince, Polity Press, 1992
  • Edward Said, Orientalism: Westerners Conceptions of the Orient; 1978, Routledge & Kegan

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001

slide34

THANK YOU

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001