Islamaphobia
Download
1 / 34

ISLAMAPHOBIA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 188 Views
  • Updated On :

ISLAMAPHOBIA. Islamaphobia . Myth 2 : “Jihad”. The Myth of the Islamic Threat Nermien Al-Ali (BA:Islamic Jurisprudence & Political Science, LLB/LLM). Basic Tenets of Islam. Myth 3: Islamic “Fundamentalism”. Myths. Myth 4: Islam & women. Myth 1 - Homogenous bloc.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ISLAMAPHOBIA' - ostinmannual


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Islamaphobia l.jpg

ISLAMAPHOBIA

Islamaphobia

Myth 2 : “Jihad”

The Myth of the Islamic Threat

Nermien Al-Ali

(BA:Islamic Jurisprudence & Political Science, LLB/LLM)

Basic Tenets of Islam

Myth 3: Islamic

“Fundamentalism”

Myths

Myth 4: Islam & women

Myth 1 - Homogenous bloc

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia definition l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Definition

  • A phenomenon reported & studied in EU(UK), US, AUST., & Russia

  • A form of Xenophobia: phobic fear & hatred of what is ‘foreign’ or the ‘other’ because seen as a danger that threatens way of life

  • Islamaphobia: phobic fear for person, family, community, society, way of life, country, civilization of some Islamic threat

  • Mildest form - indulgence in seeing Islam as deplorable & not worthy of attention

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia features l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Features

  • Negative stereotypes about Islam as the next threat to western civilization after communism: “the enemy within” - “Islamic terrorists”, “A Holy War Heads Our Way”

  • Stereotypes of Muslims as barbaric, irrational, fanatic, supportive of terrorism, oppressive of women - simply: Anti-American

  • Works on deeply embedded cultural biases that rationalize & spread prejudices & stereotypes - “only natural”

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia consequences l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences

Prejudice Stereotyping

Hate Crimes: Verbal & Physical Abuse Vandalism & Arson of Mosques & shops

Murder

Defamation Slander Attack by Media

Profiling Breach of Civil liberties

Discrimnation Alienation

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia consequences5 l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences

Source: www.CAIR-net.org

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia consequences6 l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Consequences

Source: www.CAIR-net.org

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia origins l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Origins

Based on deeply embedded cultural biases

  • Crusades & Inquisition - 11-16th: 5 Centuries of Holy War against infidels & heretics (Catholic Encyclopedia www.newadvent.org.cathen)

  • Renaissance 17-18th: Voltaire: excluded Muslims from the right to tolerance in his essay (Springboard)

  • Colonial times - up to 1960s- Orientalists portrayed Arabs & Muslims as barbarian & primitive to justify colonial conquests (Said)

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia feeds on myths l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 1: Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader

Myth 2: Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’

Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental!

Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Basic tenets general l.jpg
BASIC TENETS: General

  • Islam means: Peace & Self-surrender to the Will of God

  • A universal message - confirms preceding Divine revelations. Prophet Mohamed is God’s messenger sent to complete & compliment previous revelations:

  • Abrahamic religion: “… it is the belief of your father Abraham. It is He (God) Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation)” 22:78

  • 6 pillars of faith and 5 pillars of religion

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Basic tenets pillars of faith l.jpg
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Faith

6 Pillars of faith: To believe in

  • God

  • His angels

  • His Messengers (prophets)

  • His Books (Scriptures)

  • Day of Judgement

  • Fate & Destiny - good & bad

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Basic tenets pillars of islam l.jpg
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam

5 Pillars of Practice

  • Testify (declare) that no gods but God and that Mohamed is His Messenger

  • Pray 5 times a day (Ritual - ablution)

  • Fast the month of Ramadan (lunar calendar)

  • Pay alms (2.5% of annual savings)

  • Pilgrimage to Mecca (Rituals traced to Abraham & Hajar)

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Basic tenets pillars of islam12 l.jpg
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam

PRAYER: Ruk’a

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Basic tenets pillars of islam13 l.jpg
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Basic tenets pillars of islam14 l.jpg
BASIC TENETS: Pillars of Islam

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia feeds on myths15 l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 1: Islam is a monolithic bloc - will spur in an act of ‘Holy War’ by a ‘fatwa’ of some bearded leader

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Myth 1 islam is a monolithic bloc l.jpg
Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc

  • Around 1.4 Billion Muslims in the world - Only 18% are Arabs

  • Largest Muslim population in Indonesia 201M. 55M Russia, 100M India, 24 in EU, 7-10 US (2nd largest religion)

  • Muslims comprise 4000 ethnic groups in 128 countries

  • So-called Islamic nations are members of Islamic league

  • Muslims follow no single religious authority – no priesthood

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Myth 1 islam is a monolithic bloc17 l.jpg
Myth 1 - Islam is a monolithic bloc

http://islamicweb.com/begin/population.htm

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001



Myth 1 can be mobilized by a fatwa l.jpg
Myth 1 - .. Can be mobilized by a ‘fatwa’

  • Fatwa is a non-binding juristic opinion usually passed by Muslim scholars to respond to a new situation. A fatwa that is contrary to Islamic ‘law’ is void prima facie

  • Sources of Islamic law/jurisprudence:

    1. Quran: Actual words of God revealed to Prophet Mohamed through Gabriel remained & will remain unchanged

    2. Hadith: Prophet teachings - authenticity 7000 of 600,000

    3. Reasoning by Analogy (drugs)

    4. Consensus

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Islamaphobia feeds on myths20 l.jpg
ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

Myth 2: Islam preaches violence against non-Muslims as infidels in the name of ‘Jihad’

(C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


Myth 2 islam condones violence against non muslims l.jpg
Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims

Aggression is a vice in Islam

  • The Prophet defined the Muslim as one causing no verbal or physical harm to others

  • Islam’s greeting to everyone is “peace be upon you”

  • Murder of one person or causing devastation of any form is equated with killing all humanity

  • “Jihad”: Striving to do good for the sake of God - A broad concept

  • Coming from a battle the Prophet said to the Muslims: “You came from the minor ‘Jihad’ back to the major ‘Jihad’” Asked to explain, he replied: “Inner self ‘Jihad’”

  • (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 2 islam condones violence against non muslims22 l.jpg
    Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims

    Even in cases of war

    • General: “Don’t fight those who don’t declare war on you for your faith or don’t attempt to take over your homeland” 60:8-9

    • “Fight for the sake of God (ie not for economic or political gain) those that fight you and do not attack first” ”

    • If the other side want peace then make peace 4:90, 8:61

    • If a member of the other side seeks asylum award it & ensure safety 9:6

    • Forbidden to kill the elderly, women, children, animals or to cut a tree

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 2 islam condones violence against non muslims23 l.jpg
    Myth 2: Islam condones violence against non-Muslims

    Religious Tolerance most fundamental to Islam

    • “No compulsion in religion, Truth stands out clear from Wrong” 2:255-256 - Applies to Muslims & Non-Muslims

    • Christians & Jews called “People of the Scriptures” - under an Islamic state are regarded as “protected subjects” with complete autonomy

    • The Prophet’s Charter to the Monks of Sinai

    • Christians & Jews never persecuted for their beliefs in Islamic empire. Then & now Christians keep customs, start schools, visited by missionaries

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Islamaphobia feeds on myths24 l.jpg
    ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

    Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a religious duty of the fundamentalists. You never know when your Muslim friend will turn more fundamental!

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 3 terrorism is islamic a fundamentalist duty l.jpg
    Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty

    • “Fundamentalist” is meaningless - Used to denote Muslims that believe in Islam fundamentals support terrorism

    • Originally used to describe Protestants & other Christian groups adopting literal interpretation of the Bible

    • Terrorism : Defined as “devastation on land” “killing people & destroying crops”. Recognized as most heinous crime

    • Punishment for terrorism: execution, crucifixion or exile 5:33. Trial first.

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 3 terrorism is islamic a fundamentalist duty26 l.jpg
    Myth 3: Terrorism is Islamic - a fundamentalist duty

    • “Islamic terrorism” is an oxymoron

    • Terrorism as a phenomena - Hitler is of the Christian faith as Saddam is of Muslim faith

    • Terrorists justify their acts by citing authoritative sources: religion, the Constitution

    • Church of the World Creator (rejoiced 9/11)

    • Christian Identity Movement (many terrorist acts in 1996 - but FBI cant identify them as such) www.religiousintolerance.org/cr_ident.htm

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Islamaphobia feeds on myths27 l.jpg
    ISLAMAPHOBIA: Feeds on Myths

    Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

    ‘Role captivity’

    ‘HAREM’

    NO SELF-DETERMINATION

    ‘Chadour’

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 4 islam is oppressive of women l.jpg
    Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

    LEADERS

    Professional Working Women

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 4 islam is oppressive of women29 l.jpg
    Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

    General

    • Equality - “We created you from one self”

    • Taking care of home & children not obligatory. Housework is work - wages - 1991 law

    • Can divorce her husband if not like him

    • “If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal fairly (with them), then only one”4:3 “you cant be fair ..”

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 4 islam is oppressive of women30 l.jpg
    Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

    Economic rights

    • Seek education/knowledge is duty of every Muslim

    • Right to own & inherit property

    • Right to contract

    • Financial independence - “To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn” 4:32Political rights

      Political Rights

    • Prophet confirmed as leader by men & women separately - mentioned in Quran 60:2

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 4 islam is oppressive of women31 l.jpg
    Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

    Islamic dress

    • A voluntary good deed - difference of opinion - part of the good deeds that women may take in their religious/spiritual devotion

    • Mentioned once in 24:31– basic principle is that of purity – emphasis first on lowering one’s gaze

    • Emphasis not on appearance but mainly on piety & conduct – 7:26.

    • No coercion or compulsion as to Islamic dress

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Myth 4 islam is oppressive of women32 l.jpg
    Myth 4: Islam is oppressive of women

    Panazir Bhutto Pakistan 88-90 & 93-5

    Khaleda Zia Bangladesh 91-6

    Tansu Ciller - Turkey 93-5

    Megawati Sukamaputri Indonesia

    Hasina Wajed Bangladesh 96+

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    References l.jpg
    References

    • Quran online: www.islamicity.com/mosque/quran

    • Index: www.islamicity.com/mosque/TOPICI.htm

    • Council on American Islamic Relations: www.Cair-net.org

    • www.themodernreligion.com/terror/terrorism_compare.html

    • Tolerance:http://salam.muslimsonline.com/~azahoor/toleran1.html

    • Women in Islam - www.mwlusa.org

      Books

    • Patricia Springborg (of Sydney University), Western Republicanism and the Oriental Prince, Polity Press, 1992

    • Edward Said, Orientalism: Westerners Conceptions of the Orient; 1978, Routledge & Kegan

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    Slide34 l.jpg

    THANK YOU

    (C) N. Al-Ali, 2001


    ad