How Do Unconscious Biases and Stereotype Threat Affect the Achievement Gap?
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How Do Unconscious Biases and Stereotype Threat Affect the Achievement Gap? Oregon Name Conference May 6, 2008. Patrick Burk, Ph.D. Oregon Department of Education Jean Moule, Ph.D. Oregon State University. Session Plan. Outline: Racial and gender achievement gaps in Oregon

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How Do Unconscious Biases and Stereotype Threat Affect the Achievement Gap?Oregon Name ConferenceMay 6, 2008

Patrick Burk, Ph.D.

Oregon Department of Education

Jean Moule, Ph.D.

Oregon State University


Session plan l.jpg
Session Plan Achievement Gap?

  • Outline:

    • Racial and gender achievement gaps in Oregon

    • Increase in Diverse Student Population

    • Teacher Diversity

  • Participants: Complete paper IAT

  • Discuss: How conscious and unconscious biases in both educators and students inform the achievement gaps.


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Gender Data Achievement Gap?


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Gender Data Achievement Gap?


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Gender Data Achievement Gap?


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A Crisis in Our State Achievement Gap?

% of Students of Color in Oregon ____

% of Teachers of Color in Oregon ____


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Race/Ethnic Breakout by Newly Licensed Educators Achievement Gap?

Prepared In Oregon and In Other States, 2005-06

Source: Teacher Standards and Practices Commission


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The Problem Achievement Gap?

  • Achievement Gap Persists

  • Classrooms Becoming More Diverse

  • Shortage of Teacher Diversity

  • Racial/Ethnic Mismatch Between Students and Teachers


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Question Achievement Gap?

How does the mismatch between

students and teachers inform

the achievement gap?


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Examples of Unconscious Biases Achievement Gap?

Blink of an eye and Re-fensing

Jamal and Keisha or John and Emily

Stereotype Threat


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Unconscious Biases at Work Achievement Gap?

Source: Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (Winter, 2005). Color blind or just plain blind. The Nonprofit Quarterly, 12(4).


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Thanks to the following team for the next six slides Achievement Gap?

Caryn Block

Loriann Roberson

Tarani Merriweather

Presented at

Teachers College, Columbia University

Winter Roundtable, February 2008

“Responding to Stereotype Threat:

What We Know and What Remains Unanswered”

25


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What is stereotype threat? Achievement Gap?

Fear of being treated and judged according to a negative stereotype about one’s group

Occurs when an individual is in a performance situation and is aware that there is a negative stereotype about their group that suggests they will not perform well

Occurs regardless of whether the individual believes the stereotype

Occurs regardless of the accuracy of the stereotype

26


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What are the conditions that lead to stereotype threat? Achievement Gap?

The task an individual is performing is relevant to the stereotype

The task is challenging

The individual is performing in a domain she or he identifies with

The context in which the task is being performed is likely to reinforce the stereotype

27


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What are the consequences of stereotype threat? Achievement Gap?

Decreased achievement test performance

Decreased short term task performance

Vast majority of research has examined these outcomes

28


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Proposed mechanisms for effect of stereotype threat on performance

Physiological arousal

Reduced working memory capacity

Anxiety

Excess effort

Lowered performance expectations

Source: www.ReducingStereotypeThreat.org

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Intelligent, motivated student performance

faces a difficult, stereotype relevant test

Search for explanation of difficulty

Context

reinforces

stereotype

Stereotype comes

to mind

Student performs test, but

performance is disrupted by

stereotype threat

Student becomes

frustrated and

demotivated

Others assume

student that performance

accurately reflects ability


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Documented in a large number of groups performance

Women on math tests

(Spencer, Steele & Quinn,1999)

African-Americans on standardized tests

(Steele & Aronson, 1995)

Hispanics on standardized tests

(Gonzales, Blanton & Williams, 2002)

Low SES students on standardized tests

(Croizet & Claire, 1998)

Women on negotiation tasks

(Kray, Galinsky & Thompson, 2002)

Men on social sensitivity tasks

(Koenig & Eagly, 2005)

Whites on tasks that require being non-racist

(Richeson & Shelton, 2003)

White men (compared with Black men) on athletic tasks

(Stone, Sjomeling, Lynch, & Darley, 1999)

White men (compared with Asian men) on a math tests

(Aronson, Lustinga, Good, Keough, Steele, & Brown,1999)

31


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The IAT performance(Implicit Association Test)

  • Source: Harvard University. Project implicit. Retrieved April 26, 2007, from https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/.


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The IAT performance(Implicit Association Test)

  • Source: Moule, J. (in press). Understanding unconscious biases and unintentional racism. The Kappan.


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A Paper IAT performance

executive LISA housework SARAH entrepreneur DEREK silverware MATT cleaning TAMMY career BILL corporation VICKY office STEVE administrator PAUL home AMY employment PEGGY dishwasher MARK babies BOB marriage MIKE professional MARY merchant JEFF garden KEVIN family HOLLY salary SCOTT shopping DIANA business DONNA manager EMILY laundry JOHN promotion KATE commerce JILL kitchen GREG children JASON briefcase JOAN living-room ANN house ADAM


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A Paper IAT performance

The words in this list are in four categories:

MALE NAMES and FEMALE NAMES are in CAPITAL letters.

Home-related and career-related words are in lowercase.


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Round One IAT performance

Go through the list from left to right line by line, putting a line through only each MALE NAME and each home related word.

Do this as fast as you can.


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Round Two IAT performance

The next list is the same as the last one. This time, go through the list putting a line through only each FEMALE NAME and each home-related word.

Again, Do this as fast as you can.


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A Few Suggestions on performanceIntercultual Communications

Source: Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (Winter, 2005). Color blind or just plain blind. The Nonprofit Quarterly, 12(4).


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A Few Suggestions on performanceOvercoming Stereotype Threat

.

Reframing the task

Deemphasizing threatened social identities

Encouraging self-affirmation

Emphasizing high standards with assurances of capability

Providing role models

Providing external attributions for difficulty

Emphasizing an incremental view of ability

Source: http://reducingstereotypethreat.org/reduce.html retrieved April 27, 2008


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