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focus groups

focus groups

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focus groups

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    1. Focus Groups

    2. 2 To arise Commonly/definition When use? Planning Participanten conversation LEADER and employees Scope and frequency Advantages and disadvantages Preparation Implementation Analysis or the results Reporting To arise Commonly/definition When use? Planning Participanten conversation LEADER and employees Scope and frequency Advantages and disadvantages Preparation Implementation Analysis or the results Reporting

    3. 3 1. Development Used by social scientists since the 1930s Developed within market research 1950s: Analysis of the behaviour of consumers Product development Sociology

    4. 4 2. General Exploring research method based on a structured group discussion concerning a specific issue In a fixed time frame Clearly spelled out rules of procedure Interaction and openness are crucial Method on its own OR mixed methods

    5. 5 2. General Definition Discussion Moderator Topics Combination interview and discussion group

    6. 6 2. General Triangulation: Examine the topic from several angles Several actors Several forms of data collection Open method: New and unexpected information Confirm or invalidate the assumptions of the researchers

    7. 7 3. When to use? Exploration of the concept Exploratory or additional research in combination with other methods of data collection Marketing research political and sociological questions Evaluating programmes / management problems Several views

    8. 8 4. Planning Aim of the focus project? Topics? Feasible in practice? On which points do we have to complete the literature? Make a scenario / agenda Selection of the participants Test group Analysis and focus report Selection new conversation subjects Selection new conversation subjects Selection new conversation subjects

    9. 9 4. Planning Define clearly the research topic: What information is expected? How will the information be used?

    10. 10 5. Participants Selection criteria based on corresponding characteristics related to the study subject Basic principle of homogeneity: people speak more freely about a subject in a group of peers Representativity of subordinate importance Participants and moderator dont know each other Purposive or convenience sampling: accordingly select the people who will provide you with the best information

    11. 11 5. Participants Participants: research practice management Practical: Provide general information concerning the focus project: Accompanying letter Aim of the focus group Preliminary draft of the research Practically: Practically:

    12. 12 6. Moderator Tasks: Stimulate interaction Clarify when needed Summarise the points of view Have sufficient background information Skills: listen, ask non directive questions, summarise, slow down and stimulate certain participants, paraphrase

    13. 13 7. Scope & frequency Scope: Between 4 and 12 people Differences in the literature! Depending on the quantity of information given by each participant Small enough so that everyone takes part in the conversation Large enough to guarantee sufficient viewpoints Research: mini focus groups (4-5 people) to explore first opinions: danger: discussion remains limited Research: mini focus groups (4 5 people) to sound to first opinions: danger: discussion remains limited Research: mini focus groups (4 5 people) to sound to first opinions: danger: discussion remains limited

    14. 14 7. Scope & frequency Frequency: 4 sessions Principle of saturation Duration: 1 - 2 hours Policy matters: workshops first sessions longer (new information)

    15. 15 8. Advantages & disadvantages Advantages Large involvement Limited time investment of participants Much information Simple method Cheap Open method: moderator has little direct influence on the conversation Disadvantages Difficult analysis Experienced moderator required Danger of irrelevant topics (monitoring the procedure!) Problems with generalisability Problematic recruting

    16. 16 8. Advantages & disadvantages Advantages Flexible method Depth - information Hihg face validity (method measures what we want to measure) Large research group Disadvantages Unsuitable for controversial topics Less control on a group process than on one individual Differences between several focus groups

    17. 17 9. Preparation Define clearly the research subject Prepare a questionnaire Recruit participants define the selection criteria define the number of sessions and the scope of the groups Practical preparations Choose the moderator Prepare the information Logistic organisation Create a scenario Pre-testing: check the questionnaire and the skills of the staff

    18. 18 9. Preparation Questionnaire: 2 - 5 head questions (to explore 1 or 2 topics) from common to specific (funnel concept) Open questions Present the questionnaire to others Same or different questions for each focus group?

    19. 19 10. Implementation 1. Introduction Background information on the research (topics) Expectations of the conversation Acquaintance Announce the recording Indicate that the participants are the experts

    20. 20 10. Implementation 2. Discussion / question round Use the questionnaire in a flexible way Techniques: 5 sec pause after each input Interrogate (keep on asking) Reflect the important issues on a flip over or a computer screen Offer possibility to talk informally after the discussion

    21. 21 11. Analysis Note the first impressions Transcription of the tapes Summarise the results by each group or topic Grounded theory Compare the focus groups Product of the focus group: arranged list of conceptions and points of view Illustrate with quotes Average duration step by step plan: 3 months

    22. 22 12. Reporting Nature and style depending on the public and the objective Mix of summarising paragraphs and quotes Report by question or by topic Indicate what these results mean to the research To indicate what means these results for the research To indicate what means these results for the research

    23. 23 References

    24. 24 References