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First question What is the Internet? What is the Internet? A global network of networks What is the Internet? A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches) What is the Internet?

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first question

First question

What is the Internet?

what is the internet
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks
what is the internet3
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
what is the internet4
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
what is the internet5
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
  • The computers connected to each network
what is the internet6
What is the Internet?
  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)
  • The computers connected to each network
  • A book of “IP” addresses that tells each computer where all the others are
techno alphabet soup pt 1
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 1
  • IP = Internet Protocol – routes the packets
  • TCP = Transmission Control Protocol arrives in reliable order

TCP/IP describes the rules for transmitting small packets of bits (0s and 1s) from one computer to another.

techno alphabet soup pt 2
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 2

Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.

techno alphabet soup pt 29
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 2

Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.

It may have:

  • a name – for example, the Web server for this university is www.albany.edu…
techno alphabet soup pt 210
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 2

Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.

It may have:

  • a name – for example, www.albany.edu

But it must have:

  • an IP address – 169.226.1.110
techno alphabet soup pt 3
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS)…

techno alphabet soup pt 312
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), which is like the white pages of the Internet, translating names to IP addresses.

techno alphabet soup pt 313
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), the white pages of the Internet.

There are thousands of DNSs around the world…

techno alphabet soup pt 314
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), the white pages of the Internet.

There are thousands of DNSs around the world, and they all know that:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

and vice versa.

techno alphabet soup pt 4
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address :

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

techno alphabet soup pt 416
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address :

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

518-442-3300…

techno alphabet soup pt 417
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

518-442-3300, or 415-442-3300, x. 118

techno alphabet soup pt 418
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

518-442-3300, or 415-442-3300, x. 118

But notice that the domain name is a different kind of hierarchy…

techno alphabet soup pt 419
Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

The domain name has 2 parts – the host and top level domain (TLD).

albany = host (really University at Albany)

.edu = TLD (top level domain)= education

domain categories
Domain categories

Original top level domain categories in the U.S.:

  • .com – businesses
  • .edu – educational institutions
  • .gov – government agencies
  • .mil – military units
  • .net – networks
  • .org – non-profit organizations
other domains
Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.
other domains22
Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.

Other government sites within U.S.:

  • state.ny.us
other domains23
Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.

Other government sites within U.S.:

  • state.ny.us

Country codes:

  • .at, .au, .ca, .de, .fr, .uk, etc.
other domains24
Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.

Other government sites within U.S.:

  • state.ny.us

Country codes:

  • .at, .au, .ca, .de, .fr, .uk, etc.
the authority for domains
The authority for domains…

http://www.icann.org/

ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

Newest : .mail – a site for anti-spam community

.kid -?

the authority for domains26
The authority for domains…
  • ICANN – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

To the extent anyone is in charge, it’s ICANN.

what s in the packets
What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

what s in the packets29
What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)
what s in the packets30
What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)
  • An addressee, e.g., someone@…
what s in the packets31
What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)
  • An addressee, e.g., someone@…
  • Something to indicate order or sequence
what s in the packets32
What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)
  • An addressee, e.g., someone@…
  • Something to indicate order or sequence
  • A portion of the message (Why not all?…)
what s in the packets33
What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)
  • An addressee, e.g., someone@…
  • Something to indicate order or sequence
  • A portion of the message (Why not all?…)

How would that work here?…

delivering the message
Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 25?…

  • We need an address: 25.2.9.7
delivering the message35
Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 25?…

  • We need an address: 25.2.9.7

And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…

delivering the message36
Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 25?…

  • We need an address: 25.2.9.7

And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…

  • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”
the lc dns server
The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) # . side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.

the lc dns server38
The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) # . side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.

So where is 25.2.9.7?…

pieces of the message40
Splenda works

As well

As sugar

For packet

switching

Pieces of the message…
next question

Next question…

When was the Internet?

when was the internet
When was the Internet?
  • 1961 – Len Kleinrock (then at MIT, now at UCLA) developed theory of “packet switching,” describing how data could behave on a highway where collisions were not only allowed but expected!!
when was the internet43
When was the Internet?
  • 1961 – Len Kleinrock (then at MIT, now at UCLA) developed theory of “packet switching,” describing how data could behave on a highway where collisions were not only allowed but expected!!
  • 1964 – Paul Baran (RAND Corp.) used packet theory to develop idea of a network that could survive major outages….
when was the internet44
When was the Internet?
  • 1965 – Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Pentagon funded the first experimental connection between a computer at MIT and one in California… over a 1200 bps phone line.
when was the internet45
When was the Internet?
  • 1966 – Robert Taylor, an ARPA funding manager, got fed up. He proposed networking computers around the country… mainframes… four of them. His boss said “OK” and gave him $1M after a 20-minute conversation…. There was only one small problem: no one knew how to do this!
when was the internet46
When was the Internet?
  • 1966-69 – ARPA awarded a contract to Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), an architectural consulting firm in Boston to design and build “ARPANET,” the direct ancestor of today’s Internet, with a starting configuration of four nodes!
when was the internet47
When was the Internet?
  • 8/30/69UCLA
  • 10/1/69 SRI
  • 10/29/69 1st message, UCLA to SRI
  • 11/1/69 UCSB
  • 12/?/69 University of Utah… ski season…
when was the internet48
When was the Internet?
  • By 1971, there were 23 “hosts” (computers) at 15 “nodes” in CA, UT, IL, MI, PA, & MA
when was the internet49
When was the Internet?
  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address
when was the internet50
When was the Internet?
  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address
  • 1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email
when was the internet51
When was the Internet?
  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address
  • 1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email
  • 1974 – BBN creates Telenet, first public network
when was the internet52
When was the Internet?
  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address
  • 1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email
  • 1974 – BBN creates Telenet, first public network
  • 1975 – first mailing list, MsgGroup, forerunner of listservs
when was the internet53
When was the Internet?
  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)
when was the internet54
When was the Internet?
  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)
  • 4/12/79 – Kevin MacKenzie invents the “emoticon” :-)
when was the internet55
When was the Internet?
  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)
  • 4/12/79 – Kevin MacKenzie invents the “emoticon” :-)
  • 10/27/80 – first accidental virus shuts down ARPANET
when was the internet56
When was the Internet?
  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)
  • 4/12/79 – Kevin MacKenzie invents the “emoticon” :-)
  • 10/27/80 – first accidental virus shuts down ARPANET
  • 1984 – number of hosts breaks 1000, William Gibson coins “cyberspace”
when was the internet57
When was the Internet?
  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps
when was the internet58
When was the Internet?
  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps
  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000
when was the internet59
When was the Internet?
  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps
  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000
  • 1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1,500,000 bps
when was the internet60
When was the Internet?
  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps
  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000
  • 1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1,500,000 bps
  • 1989 – number of hosts breaks 100,000
when was the internet61
When was the Internet?
  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps
  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000
  • 1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1,500,000 bps
  • 1989 – number of hosts breaks 100,000
  • 1992 – number of hosts breaks 1,000,000
where was the internet
Where was the Internet?
  • 1973 – universities in UK and Norway
  • 1982 – Netherlands-Denmark-Sweden-UK
  • 1983 – Germany-Korea
  • 1984 – Japan, Soviet Union
  • 1985 – Canada
  • (1986 – NSFNET created in U.S.)
  • 1988-90 – CA, DK, FI, FR, IS, NO, SE; AU, DE, IL, IT, JP, MX, NL, NZ, UK; AR, AT, BE, BR, CL, GR, IN, IE, KR, ES, CH connect to NSFNET
when was the internet64
When was the Internet?
  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down
when was the internet65
When was the Internet?
  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down
  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps
when was the internet66
When was the Internet?
  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down
  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps
  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software
when was the internet67
When was the Internet?
  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down
  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps
  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software
  • 1993 – Marc Andreesen at U. of IL invents browser
when was the internet68
When was the Internet?
  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down
  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps
  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software
  • 1993 – Marc Andresen at U. of IL invents browser
  • 1994 – Arizona law firm sends first “spam,” first Pizza Hut takes orders online
when was the internet69
When was the Internet?
  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down
  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps
  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software
  • 1993 – Marc Andreesen at U. of IL invents browser
  • 1994 – Arizona law firm sends first “spam,” first Pizza Hut takes orders online
  • 1995 – Internet becomes commercial, AltaVista goes online in December