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Experiences with Tutored Video Instruction for CS1 Richard Anderson Martin Dickey Hal Perkins Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Overview Tutored Video Instruction Implementation Evaluation Results, Observations, and Questions

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experiences with tutored video instruction for cs1

Experiences with Tutored Video Instruction for CS1

Richard Anderson

Martin Dickey

Hal Perkins

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

University of Washington

  • Tutored Video Instruction
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation
  • Results, Observations, and Questions
  • www.cs.washington.edu/education/TVI/
  • tvi-info@cs.washington.edu
tutored video tape instruction
Tutored Video(tape) Instruction
  • Group viewing of archived course materials with a facilitator
  • Developed by Jack Gibbons of Stanford University in the 70s
    • "Tutored Videotape Instruction: A New use of Electronics Media in Education," J. F. Gibbons, W. R. Kincheloe, K. S. Down, Science, March 1977
stanford tvi experiments
Stanford TVI Experiments
  • Began with remote offerings of classes to HP Engineers
  • TVI students out performed video only and in-class students
tvi theory
TVI Theory
  • Peer learning – students find answers through discussion
  • Recommendations
    • Small groups (3-10)
    • Peer relationship with tutor
    • Frequent breaks for discussion (once every 5 minutes)
    • Video from live class
uw tvi
  • Offered TVI courses at Community Colleges over a period of two years
  • Community college instructor served as course facilitator
project goals
Project goals
  • Understand whether or not Tutored Video approach is viable for CS education
  • Develop methodology for export of university courses
  • Make it possible for a wider range of schools to offer introductory programming
  • Address Community College articulation issues
community college offerings i
Community College Offerings I
  • Offered CSE 142/143 using UW materials at community colleges.
  • Two quarter sequence of intro programming course using C/C++
  • Recorded versions of UW lectures
  • UW Homework and Exams
  • Material graded at UW, credit given by CCs, but accepted for UW Transfer credit
tvi class offerings
TVI class offerings
  • Autumn 1998
    • CSE 143: NSCC
  • Winter 1999
    • CSE 142: Highline, NSCC, UW on-campus sections
  • Winter 2000
    • CSE 142: Green River, Shoreline, Centralia
  • Spring 2000
    • CSE 142: Centralia, Green River, Highline, CWU
    • CSE 143: Shoreline, NSCC, Green River
  • Summer 2000, Autumn 2000, Winter 2001
    • CSE 142: Green River (unofficial)
implementation details lecture materials
Implementation details: lecture materials
  • Lectures recorded with single camera on instructor
  • PowerPoint transparencies synchronized with presentation
  • Goal: low impact on classroom instructor
  • Lectures viewed with Windows MediaPlayer
  • CC instructors downloaded lecture in advance (as opposed to using over internet)
implementation details course mechanics
Implementation details: course mechanics
  • Course used UW homework and exams
  • Exams and homework used from quarter the lectures were recorded
  • Material graded at UW
    • Electronic submission of homework
    • US Mail submission of exams
  • Reasons for centralized model
    • Remove grading authority from tutor
    • Consistency for evaluation of experiment
    • Support wider range of tutor
  • Mixed
    • Some sections successful
      • Positive teaching evaluations
      • Similar distribution of grades to UW offering (on same materials)
      • Positive comments and anecdotes
      • Repeat instructors
    • Some sections unsuccessful
      • Low grades/evaluations
      • Grumpy students
numerical data
Numerical data
  • Large amount collected, but . . .
  • Several major issues were clear without statistical analysis
  • A very large number of variables would make analysis difficult
  • Many in-course corrections
    • Educational experience vs. experimental clarity tradeoff
student reactions
Student reactions
  • Negative reaction to low quality materials
    • Lost writing on transparencies
    • Inadequate projection facilities
  • Concerns about missing aspects of UW course
  • Did not appreciate the TVI model ("just watching TV")
  • Some students bonded with UW instructor
  • Community college instructors
  • Wide range of backgrounds
    • Some instructors had background to offer course
    • Some instructors from other areas with little background
    • Varying degree of facilitator buy in
  • Facilitators developed a wide range of styles in using the TVI materials
conclusions from experiments i
Conclusions from experiments I
  • Abandon centralized course administration
    • Logistical difficulties (delays, lack of communication)
    • Student focus on relationship with University
    • Lack of interaction on assessment
    • Lack of awareness of student performance by instructors
conclusions from experiments ii
Conclusions from experiments II
  • Use higher production value materials
    • Students complained about material not captured on in-class video tape
    • Much of the in-class time is irrelevant
    • Lack of clarity of in-class tape did not generate discussion
  • Solution: Studio produced lecture materials
    • Substantially shorter (13.2 hrs for 10 week course!)
open question does tvi work
Open question: Does TVI work?
  • How well does TVI work for introductory programming?
  • Gibbons work is well known, but the method is still under assessed (and not widely used)
  • Conclusion from UW TVI experiments:
    • Evidence that it can be used successfully for CS1
    • Understanding of a wide range of pitfalls
future directions
Future directions
  • Training of facilitators
  • Observations showed that facilitators used materials in many different ways
    • Design a display environment in support flexible use and encourage peer learning
  • Support a community of facilitators
    • TVI for instructor development
    • Annotation of lecture content