Bristlecones (Pinus longaeva & Pinus aristata) Grow atop the arid mountains of the Great Basin, from Colorado to Ca - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bristlecones (Pinus longaeva & Pinus aristata) Grow atop the arid mountains of the Great Basin, from Colorado to Ca

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  1. Bristlecones (Pinus longaeva & Pinus aristata) Grow atop the arid mountains of the Great Basin, from Colorado to California http://www.photo.net/ca/sierra

  2. EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE : Data Source TUESDAY - January 28, 2003 … 15.00 – 15.30 Internet surfing  15.30 – 17.15 Webxercises 17.15 – 17.45 General discussion with prize 17.45 – 18.30 Teacher's state of the art lecture: What do you find on the net ?

  3. European Academy for Medicine of AgeingIKB Foundation, Sion, SwitzerlandWhat do you find on the net ?F. R. Herrmann, MD, MPH

  4. Plan • Definitions 1 • History (hardware & internet) 2 • What info for who?3 • Web site design 4 • Quality of content 5 • Usage 6 • THM & Perspectives 7

  5. Definition The Net is an example of a non-teleological(no specific purpose), self-organizing system that combines human and machine communication, reasoning, and associative capabilities. The History of the Net. Master's Thesis. School of Communications. Grand Valley State University. Allendale, MI; 1994 http://www.ocean.ic.net/ftp/doc/nethist.html

  6. WWW = World Wide Web = The Web A « boundless » information space populated by a collection of data objectslinked via a communication protocol LOWE HL et al. The World Wide Web : A review of an emerging Internet-based Technology for the Distribution of biomedical information. JAMIA 3(1) 1996;1-14.

  7. Definitions

  8. Last Part of a Domain nameIn the United States GOV Government affiliated organizationMIL Military EDU Schools, Universities, HospitalsCOM Commercial organizationsNET Gateway computersORG Ill defined organizations

  9. Plan • Definitions 1 • History (hardware & internet) • What info for who? 3 • Web site design 4 • Quality of content 5 • Usage 6 • THM & Perspectives 7

  10. Sebastian M. Cosmographiae Universalis. Basel; 1550:338-339. http://historic-cities.huji.ac.il/central_europe/central_europe.html

  11. History -3000Chinese abacus 100Roman abacus http://www.soroban.com/museum/index_eng.html

  12. History Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 ~1500 First drawing of a mechanical calculator http://www.maxmon.com/1500ad.htm

  13. History Wilhelm Schickard 1592 - 1635 D • First calculator to speed Kepler’s astronomicalcomputation Blaise Pascal1623 - 1662 F 1642Pascaline To simplytaxes processing http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/PictDisplay/Schickard.html http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/ http://www.maxmon.com/1640ad.htm

  14. History Joseph-Marie Jacquard1752-1834 F 1800 invent the loom programmed trough punched cardboard Regularityof silk weaving Design with more than 8 colors Job made easier

  15. History Charles Babbage 1791-1871 UK 1823 Difference Engine through funding from the British Government for calculating and printing mathematical tables by machine 1827 published a table of logarithms from 1 to 108000 1833began work on the Analytical Engine Precision of numeric tables http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Zuse.html

  16. History Herman Hollerith1860-1929USA 1880 Punch cards 1890 U.S. census 1896 Tabulating Machine Co… 1924 ...International Business Machine Efficiency Cense faster and less expensive http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/hollerith/ http://www.oz.net/~markhow/writing/holl.htm

  17. History 1907 Lee de Forest 1873-1961 USA audion = "triode" = "bulb"

  18. History Alan Turing1912 -1954 UK 1936Concepts of Universal Turing Machine, to solve all algorimical questions 1939Bombe, firstelectromecanical device to decypherencoded messages through the German Enigma 1950« Computing Machinery andIntelligence » in the journal Mind

  19. History Konrad Zuse 1910 -1995 D 1935 First idea to construct a "mechanical brain » 1937 Elementary operation is: "Check of two binary digits for equality. Result is a variable with two values, which is once more a binary digit." 1938Z1 : fully mechanical programmable digital computer (test model). 1940 Z2 : first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer of the world. http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/Zuse.html

  20. The Z1 computer in the living room of Konrad Zuse's parents in 1936 http://www.epemag.com/zuse/Images/fig7b.jpg

  21. History Konrad Zuse 1910-1995 Germany 1941 Z3. First realization of a program control using the binary digits. 1943 Henschel Aircraft Factory : first process control systemfor measuring the wings of airplanes 1945 Z4 Plankalkül(plan calculus), first programming language, a predecessor of the modern algorithmic programming languages 1950 Z4 used at ETH

  22. History 1945: John von Neumann wrote "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC" in which he outlined the architecture of a stored-program computer. Vernon Bush envision Hypertext "As we may think” 1946: ENIAC completed 1947:Transistor : W. Schokley, W Brattain, J. Bardeen. Bell Tel. Lab. http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/

  23. 1958 IC commonly referred to as the "chip"

  24. History 1958: Integratedcircuit by Jack Kilby(TI) 1961: UNIMATE, first industrial robot 1962: P. Baranconceive Internet (Rand Corp) 1963: D.C. Engelbartdescribe Hypertext 1964: P. Baranwrites a proposal in response to the U.S Government’s need for a decentralized communications networkin the event of a nuclear holocaust. http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr http://www.isoc.org/internet-history/brief.html http://www.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html

  25. How it works : 1964 Paul Baran’s specifications • The communication network will have: • No central authority • Ability to work under the worst possible conditions • Ability to assume that it is unreliable at all times • Ability to transcend it's own unreliability • All nodes in network equal in status, having the ability to originate, pass and receive messages • Messages divided into discrete packets of data • No priority on routing of packets

  26. Standard communication How it works Arrival Start

  27. Internet communication How it works Arrival Start

  28. History 1965T.H. Nelson define Hypertext 1967 First Electronic Handheld Calculator First internal pacemaker (Medtronics) http://www.isoc.org/internet-history/brief.html http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr

  29. History 1968Realization of Arpanet (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) 1970TCP/IP (Transmission ControlProtocol / Internet Protocol) 1971 First Microprocessor (Intel) 1977 Apple II 1981 IBM PC … 1989 Tim Berners-LeeWorld Wide Web

  30. The CERN (Geneva), Web’s birth place

  31. History 1990ARPANET is deactivated ARCHIE - First Internet search engine to catalogue software programs located at FTP sites on the Internet. 1991GOPHER-Created to catalogue the vast quantities of rawinformation on the Internet into a menu type format.

  32. History 1992WWW- created for high energy physics researchers to share information.Over 1M computers connected to theinternet. 1993First browser "MOSAIC" becomes all purpose internet tool for web and Usenet group browsing, and E-mail. US Whitehouse, United Nations and World Bank join the Internet community. Bill Clinton first president to receive E-mail at president@whitehouse.gov. Commercial exclusion lifted on Internet

  33. History 1994 First business starts taking orders online. Law Firm spans the internet with E-mail advertising 1995 Netscape Navigator become most popular WWW browser. The Internet becomes a commercial success. Technologies of the Year: WWW, Search engines Emerging Technologies: Mobile code (JAVA, JAVAscript), 1996 INTERNIC creates new IP addressing format to accomodate shortage of IP addresses. HTML 3.0 Hacks of the Year: US Dept of Justice, CIA, Air Force, UK Labour Party, NASA - US Air Force Technologies of the Year: Search engines, JAVA, Internet Phone Emerging Technologies: Virtual environments (VRML), Collaborative tools, Internet appliance (NC) 1997 First Swiss banks propose telebanking Technologies of the Year: Push, MulticastingEmerging Technologies: Push, Streaming Media

  34. History 1998 Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, net, edu, mil, jp, us, uk ,de, ca, au Hacks of the Year: US Dept of Commerce (20 Feb), New York Times (13 Sep) China Society for Human Rights Studies (26 Oct), UNICEF (7 Jan) Technologies of the Year: E-Commerce, E-Auctions, PortalsEmerging Technologies: E-Trade, XML, Intrusion Detection http://www.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html#Sources

  35. History 1999 The first full-service bank available only on the Net, opens for business. Hacks of the Year: Star Wars, US Senate, Paraguay Gov't, Microsoft (26 Oct), UK Railtrack (31 Dec) Technologies of the Year: E-Trade, Online Banking, MP3 Emerging Technologies: Net-Cell Phones, Thin Computing, Embedded Computing Viruses of the Year: Mellisa (March), Explore (June) http://www.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html#Sources

  36. History 2000 • Massive denial of service attack launched against major web sites, including Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay (February) • Web size estimates by NEC-RI and Inktomi surpass 1 billion indexable pages • The European Commission contracts with a consortium of 30 national research networks for the development of Géant, Europe's new gigabit research network meant to enhance the current capability provided by TEN-155 (6 Nov) • Technologies of the Year: ASP, Napster • Emerging Technologies: Wireless devices, IPv6 • Virus of the Year:Love letter (May) • Lawsuits of the Year : Napster, DeCSS • http://www.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html#Sources

  37. History 2001 • First live distributed musical The Technophobe & The Madman -- over Internet2 networks debuts on 20 Feb European Council finalizes an international cybercrime treaty on 22 June and adopts it on 9 November. This is the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet. • Afghanistan's Taliban bans Internet access country-wide, including from Government offices, in an attempt to control content (13 Jul) • Viruses of the Year:Code Red (Jul), Nimda (Sep), SirCam (Jul), BadTrans (Apr, Nov) E • Emerging Technologies: Grid Computing, P2P • http://www.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/HIT.html#Sources

  38. Growth of Internet hosts http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ - Growth Data from M. Lottor / Network Wizards on http://www.nw.com

  39. EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE : Data Source TUESDAY - January 28, 2003 … 15.00 – 15.30 Internet surfing  15.30 – 17.15 Webxercises 17.15 – 17.45 General discussion with prize 17.45 – 18.30 Teacher's state of the art lecture: What do you find on the net ?

  40. Hands on exercises of Web searches « Webvidence » based medicine: Try to find answers to queries thanks to the Web Password for questions: webeama

  41. EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE : Data Source TUESDAY - January 28, 2003 … 15.00 – 15.30 Internet surfing  15.30 – 17.15 Webxercises 17.15 – 17.45 General discussion with prize 17.45 – 18.30 Teacher's state of the art lecture: What do you find on the net ?

  42. Hands on exercises of Web searches « Webvidence » based medicine: Try to find answers to queries thanks to the Web Password for questions: webeama

  43. Plan • Definitions 1 • History (hardware & internet) 2 • What info for who? • Web site design 4 • Quality of content 5 • Usage 6 • THM & Perspectives 7

  44. Scientist / Researcher • Databases access • genetics (ex) • biochemical • scientific pictures • literature searches & impact factors • classifications • Grants information • On-line Publication • Meeting organization (ex)