Differential (Casual-comparative) Research

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# Differential (Casual-comparative) Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Differential (Casual-comparative) Research. Definition – Research design in which behavior is measured in 2 groups that differ on 1 primary variable. The “IV” (not true IV) is the ________ or ______variable Classification variable is not manipulated because it is _______ or ___________

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Differential (Casual-comparative) Research

Definition – Research design in which behavior is measured in 2 groups that differ on 1 primary variable.

• The “IV” (not true IV) is the ________ or ______variable
• Classification variable is not manipulated because it is _______or___________
• history of abuse vs. no history
• Males vs. females
• heroine abusers vs. polydrug abusers

Does Group A differ from Group B on measures of the DV?

Differential (Casual-comparative) Research

Intact Group of Participants

Intact Group of Participants

Measurement of the Dependent Variable

Measurement of the Dependent Variable

Differential (Casual-comparative) Research

Does ____ demonstrate a causal relationship

• There is no guarantee that the two groups will be ______________ in all other ways.
• There may be ________________ explanations for the observed differences.

e.g., kids who play sports vs. those who don’t – compare measures of academic success.

Conducting differential (causal-comparative research
• Select groups that vary on __ quantifiable variable
• Requires ________ definitions
• Matching participants – equate groups on ______________factors
• Select _____________ groups – more likely to see difference in variable of interest

Two groups that differ on some dimension

10 children w/severe behavior problems

10 children w/no behavior problems

Compare the two groups

Avg. IQ = 103

Avg. IQ = 104

Avg. # hobbies = 4

Avg. # hobbies = 3

Avg. # siblings = 4

Avg. # siblings = 1

History of abuse = 6/10

History of abuse = 3/10

Relationship?

Two groups that differ on some dimension

20 smokers

20 nonsmokers

Compare the two groups

Ed. = High school

Ed. = High school

Avg. # drinks/day =

2

Avg. # drink/day =

3

15/20 single

5/20 married

3/20 single

17/20 married

Relationship?

Cross-sectional research design

• Measure a variable in different ___________
• Like a ____________ group design
• Cannot determine how any ___________ changes
• Other factors may influence groups other than age (______/_____________ effects)

Age group 1

e.g., 2-3

Age group 2

e.g., 4-5

Age group 3

e.g., 6-7