What is Deviance and Who is Deviant? Behavior that strays from a pathAll of us who stray
STARTS VERY EARLY • Breaking norms and rules, straying • INFRACTIONS • Lowest level of offenses, such as a simple traffic ticket, petty theft and disturbing the peace • Pranks, vandalism • Status offenses by virtue of Age
Misdemeanors • Less serious criminal offenses that do not carry with them the possibility of State Prison. However, they do carry the possibility of county jail time, sometimes as much as one year. • Possession of substances
FELONY • The most serious types of crimes. Each felony offense carries with it a possible sentence in state prison ranging from "as little as" 16 months up to life.
"WOBBLERS" • Certain offenses can be charged as either a felony or a misdemeanor, eg, narcotic possession, domestic violence, and grand theft. • Plea bargaining
1.Sociology: straying from a path • a. When behavior or characteristic deviates from prevailing definitions of what is right, good or acceptable. • b. Usually need a majority or powerful group with authority
c. Sociology studies causes and consequences of deviance. • 1. Violation of norms • 2. Violation of mores, ethical principles and values held in common
d. Deviance from a Sociological Perspective: The violation of rules or norms Biological Psychological Copyright 1999 Allyn & Bacon
2. Deviance as situational • a. Becker:“It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant” • b. Sociologists “nonjudgemental” • c. Within group framework
3. Durkheim • a. Deviance as natural. • b. Deviance as threat to integrity of social sentiments. • c. Acts not inherently deviant.
d. Power or authority or sense of the "ought" from collectively held beliefs. • e. Deviant behavior threatens solidarity of moral order • f. Ideals and deviance.
B. Social Functions of Deviance • 1. Clarifies social rules • 2. Clarifies authority structure and agents of social control
3. Increases solidarity and boundary setting • 4. May produce social change and safety valve • 5. Makes conformity seem desirable
C. Vast Majority conform (or give appearance; “merchants of morality”)
a. Burden on and within the individual • 1. Biology/Genetic Predispositions • 2. Psychology/Personality disorders • 3. Reductionism • 4. Absolves society
II.THEORIES OF DEVIANCE: THE TALES OF ELIZABETH, LIZ, BETTY, BETH & BETSY
1. A predisposition to or circumstance for deviant behavior • a. Logic: Locate the regularities of circumstances • b. Circumstances: constitutional, psychological, social, economic or cultural
c. Circumstances differentiate between non-deviant and deviant • d. Those with a predisposition or circumstance have an affinity to deviant behavior • e. Having an affinity reduces us to "Billiard Balls."
2. Active forces • a. Merton: "It is my central hypothesis that aberrant behavior may be viewed sociologically as a symptom of dissociation between culturally prescribed aspirations and socially structured avenues for realizing these aspirations."
3. Structural-Strain or Ends- Means theory of deviance: Merton (Anomie Theory)
Cultural Institutional Goals Means • Conformity Accept Accept • Innovation Accept Reject • Ritualism Reject Accept • Retreatism Reject Reject • Rebellion Reject/Replace Reject/Replace • [Henslin p 212]
B. Liz = AFFILIATION = Differential Association =Sutherland [Henslin p 205-206]
1. Affiliation: adoption or receiving of a son or daughter into a family. • a. Uniting or attaching in a close connection those who were previously unattached. • b. Logic: Converting an individual to conduct novel for her but already established for others.
c. Meaning is given to conduct previously regarded as outlandish or inappropriate • d. Context and process are provided by which neophyte may be "turned on" or "turned out."
e. Central Thesis: Deviant behavior is learned through interaction with others in intimate personal groups. The learning includes techniques of committing deviant behavior, plus motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes favorable to the commission of deviant acts.
2. Differential Association: Sutherland. Basic Assumptions • a. Deviant behavior is learned, same mechanism as in any other socialization.
b. Deviant behavior is learned in interaction with other persons. Process dependent on communication. • c. Intimate personal groups are the locus of this learning. Primary groups
d. Learning includes • 1. Techniques of committing deviant act. • 2. Specific motives, rationalizations, attitudes.
e. Individuals become deviant because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of norms, rules, laws, etc., over definitions unfavorable to violation of norms, etc.
f. People whose contacts are primarily with deviants will learn to be deviant. • g. Differential association varies in frequency, duration, priority and intensity. • h. Deviant behavior is the expression of the general needs and values of a society.
3. Deviant behavior is social problem deriving from differential values. • a. Differential association theory is essentially a learning theory.
4. What the theory does not explain: • a. Why some people associate with deviants and others do not. • b. Why some do not become intensely committed to deviance.
5. Linkage to Merton: • a. Blocked opportunities and innovative subcultures. • b. Blocked opportunities and differential association.
6.Ferraro and Johnson "How Women Experience battering: The Process of Victimization”[Sykes & Matza: Techniques of Neutralization, Henslin p 208-209] • a. The appeal to the Salvation Ethic • b. Denial of the Victimizer
c. The Denial of Injury • d. The Denial of Victimization • e. The Denial of Options • 1. Practical options • 2. Emotional options • f. The appeal to Higher Loyalties
C. Betty = SIGNIFICATION = Labelling Theory = Lemert = Matza [Henslin p 208-210
1. Review: Affinity predisposes the individual and in affiliation the individual learns to be deviant
2. What is missing? The main producers of deviants: • a. Social norms, laws and mores. • b. Enforcers and agents of social control.