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Our Image of WAR. This is our Image of War but not reflect reality on ground. U.S. soldier from 1st Marine Expeditionary Force stands guard at burning oil well at Rumayla Oilfields, March 23, 2003 in Iraq.
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This is our
Image of War
but not reflect
reality on ground
U.S. soldier from 1st Marine Expeditionary Force stands guard at burning oil well at Rumayla Oilfields, March 23, 2003 in Iraq.
Several oil wells have been set ablaze by retreating Iraqi troops in the Ramayla area, the second largest offshore oilfield in the country, near the Kuwaiti border. Story by IW/ac/HB , Photo by POOL – STAFF, REUTERS NEWS PICTURE SERVICE
In the forested Congo River basin near Kinshasa, villagers gather wood to fuel a charcoal-processing plant. The nation's extensive rainforests are suffering under too many human hands. http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/places/photos/photo_kinshasa_kinshasa.html; Photograph by James P. Blair
get revenues from
This table tells you that a lot of wood was being cut in Cambodia after the war but most was illegal cutting and selling with the government of Cambodia receiving a miniscule portion of those funds.
Rural environmental changes due to people’s behavior and politics
Impacts on people
Scenario: international organizations built refugee camps - tents, installed water pipes, public toilets BUT
MAIN IMPACT OF WAR RESULT OF TOO MANY PEOPLE ATTEMPTING TO SURVIVE AS RESOURCE EXTRACTORS IN FORESTS
“Buried children: Most of the women we have talked to tell us that they have buried one or more of their children in the forest”
“The first refugees: Bent Rønsen together with the first refugees. Some of them had been refugees for six years and were now hiding in the forest”
Indigenous communities living in forests drastically impacted by huge influx of people trying to survive from forests
Pygmy house made with sticks and leaves in northern Republic of the Congo. (Photo courtesy of "Tornasole") http://rainforests.mongabay.com/0702.htm
Bili, Democratic Republic of the Congo, July 2001 “This traditional hunter uses a poisoned arrow fired from a crossbow. He wears traditional primate-hunting attire. He's trying to get the monkeys to react to an elephant mask."Conservationist and photographer Karl Ammann http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/09/photogalleries/bushmeat_1/photo9.html
Rwanda – increased poaching for bushmeat
Uganda KobPhoto by Rhett Butler. http://news.mongabay.com/2006/0620-wcs.html
Wild meat significant protein source for landless, rural people in Asia, Africa, Latin America
Without war, half protein consumption from bushmeat; increases dramatically with war since agriculture ceases because it is to dangerous to farm
Rebels in eastern Congo have agreed to stop hunting mountain gorillas … after two endangered silverback mountain gorillas were killed and eaten by rebel forces in Congo's Virunga National Park, a protected area …. heavily impacted by civil strife …, starting with the exodus of refugees from Rwanda in 1994 and continuing on through Congo's bloody civil war. …. refugee put pressure on the Virunga's forests and wildlife for fuel wood and food, while park rangers were been targeted by soldiers and rebels. Africa Conservation Fund, a London-based conservation group, says that 97 Virunga National Park rangers have died on duty since 1996.http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0124-gorilla.html
Silverback gorilla in neighboring Gabon.
War-torn Congo Announces Two New ParksWCSSeptember 18, 2006; http://news.mongabay.com/2006/0918-wcs.html
Buttress roots of rainforest tree in UgandaImage Location: Kibali Forest, Uganda (East Africa)Photographer/Camera: Photo taken by Rhett A. Butler
After a five-hour trek through the jungle, Australian tourists are greeted by a rare mountain gorilla in Congo's Virunga National Park. Closed last year when war swept the nation (then known as Zaire), Virunga park reopened in September to tourists willing to pay $120 each for a chance to see some of its remaining great apes.
The Associated Press
A clearing in Gunung Palung National Park in Indonesian Borneo reveals an illegal logging operation Photograph by Timothy G. Laman; http://green.nationalgeographic.com/environment/photos/rainforest-deforestaton/loggingsite.html
Forest Exploitation for Timber, Diamonds, etc – mostly illegal and widespread
Forests cut to pay for war, forests cut and contaminated in search for gold, diamond mining
2. Sustainable Hunting, Fishing Practices - NO
3. Sustainable Logging Practices - NO
4. Livelihoods from Non-timber Resources - NO
few options to harvest food crops in tropical forest so bushmeat becomes more important food source
FOOD PRODUCTION AND SECURITY
THIS STOPS DURING A WAR
Millions of trees lost in Iraq during 1980-88 war with Iran - once the largest date forest in the world were either burned or felled by shrapnel
Iraqi dates once more desirable than crude oil, thriving industry gone after war and economic sanctions
James Hill for The New York Times. Feb 2003
Ecotourism ceased with the fighting in Rwanda
Ecotourism income generation based on conservation lost during fighting
1. Positive Influences
2. Negative Influences
Indirect – biodiversity protected since people kept out of military training sites, or lands used for military exercises or maintaining demilitarized zones between two fighting countries
“Ironically, twenty years of war saved Cambodia’s forests from the destruction associated with economic growth in the ASEAN region. Despite heavy US bombing and the murderous agrarian utopia of the Khmer Rouge, forests survived the 1970s. Their exploitation during the 1980s remained limited, the result of continuing war and a trade embargo by the West.” (Le Billon 2000, p. 785)
Le Billon P. 2000. The political ecology of transition in Cambodia 1989-1999: War, peace and forest exploitation. Development and Change Vol. 31, pages 785-805.
Positive Influence on Conservation
US controlled Panama Canal for 90 yrs until 1999 – a 10-mile strip along canal protected deforestation
70% of Panama’s forests already cut down
Contains most undisturbed forests in Central America – many endangered animals & plants
Forests preserved by US Army – critical watershed (streams, rivers flowing into lakes supply fresh water needed to operate the canal’s locks); erosion, sedimentation threaten canal’s future
Occurring - Loss
Deforestation claims a swath of tropical rain forest along the Rio Chagres river basin. The river is a primary water source for the Panama Canal, and deforestation of the surrounding rain forest causes erosion and sedimentation that can clog the canal and increase the need for dredging.
Photograph by Tomas Munita/AP Photos
Today Threat is uncontrolled urban expansion, not slash and burn agriculture
Mt. Gorillas, Rwanda –not killed directly by war but indirectly by people moving into area and searching for food
Conservation and wildlife management stops – which had goals of reviving populations becoming depleted
50% of elephants poached and eaten by Rwandan refugees who fled to a Park in Zaire
Thriving trade -refugees planning ahead to make money in future by illegal hunting, trading in wildlife (and parts of wildlife as medicinals);private collectors & even zoo’s buy since people want to see exotic animals
1) Poor nutrition
2) Contact with disease vectors (malaria), disease carriers eaten as food source (Ebola virus)
3) Chemicals used
Last Wednesday’s lecture
Chimpanzees & gorillas in West Africa populations reduced due to: HUNTING, EBOLA VIRUS.
Bushmeat trade threaten near town, Ebola virus in remote regions.
Ebola spreads from apes to humans when apes hunted for food or human contact dead infected ape.
Commercial poachers hunt bushmeat for sale in urban regions of Africa, most West African immigrants buy ape meat. Used to think unsustainable exploitation was poverty & have-to-eat-today principle but increasing prosperity in Asia led to booming commercial markets
Vietnam – agent orange;1961-1971, US sprayed defoliants (chemicals cause trees to drop all their foliage) over >10% of South Vietnam,~14% forests of Vietnam destroyed (Mydans 2003)
Reasons used chemicals:1) remove forest cover so can’t hide in forests2) easier to mobilize troops, move vehicles to conduct war3) remove food source
3) Increased killing of animals as a food source - frequently contaminated since animals eating plants chemically contaminated
Results chemical defoliant use:1) toxic chemical residues in soil, plants, humans(high levels lead and nickel in plants – dangerous pollutants);2) contaminated food production systems
Human health problems – not only US soldiers but millions of Vietnamese exposed
Vietnamese Boy Disabled by Agent Orange in a Ho Chi Minh City Hospital
VIETNAM : February 28, 2005
A Vietnamese boy disabled by Agent Orange gets the attention of a volunteer while sitting in his cot in a Ho Chi Minh City hospital, February 25, 2005.
“On Monday, a New York court will begin hearing a lawsuit brought by more than 100 Vietnamese seeking compensation and a clean-up of contaminated areas from more than 30 firms, among them Dow Chemical Co and Monsanto Co, the largest makers of Agent Orange. Agent Orange, named after the colour of its containers, is blamed for nightmarish birth defects in Vietnam where babies appeared with two heads or without eyes or arms.”
Story by Adrees Latif AL/CCK, Photo by ADREES LATIF, REUTERS NEWS PICTURE SERVICE
Not only direct effects but chemical legacies: CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF THE SOILS AND FOOD CROPS
Kashmiri Villagers Walk Past a Crater Caused Due to a Landmine Explosion at Village Pahloo
INDIA: October 1, 2002
Story by FK/AH, Photo by FAYAZ KABLI, REUTERS NEWS PICTURE SERVICE
Many chemicals derived from complex polyphenolics (= plant derived secondary chemicals used by plants so animals don’t eat them because they are toxic or cause indigestion) - MANY FROM TROPICAL PLANTS
They have longpersistence in environment because of chemical composition resistant to microbial breakdown
Romanian Soldier Wearing a Gas Mask Checks a Tester to Detect a Possible Chemical Contamination
ROMANIA: February 20, 2003
Makes plants woody
Very resistant to decay
Complex enzymes needed to break down
Removed from wood to make paper, what is left after composting
1) fleeing war, fighting,
2) maintenance of political boundaries in contested border areas (e.g. Guatemala) using colonization projects run by governments to move people to border regions
Amazon – Large areas of the borders isolated (easily occupied by inhabitants of adjacent countries)
Building roads to develop political boundaries where multiple ownership claims
Governments encourage, subsidize people to move to borders
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire) eastern region with 8 national parks & reserves had human density = 49 persons/km2;Rwandan civil war 1994, Zairian civil war 1996-97 =1.5-2 million refugees
Rwanda has population density of 293.3 people/km2 in 2000 (ANY FORESTS LEFT BASED ON DIAGRAM BELOW?)
Forest remaining (% of Total)
Population Density (persons/km2)
This increase in population density bad when subsistence survival dominates
Rwanda has 12.4% land in forests in 2000
Significant portion – 93.9% - live in rural areas in 1999
No room for forests to be safety valve during war; lost 15% forest cover 1990-2000
Zaire has 64.6% of land in forests
38.3% of the people live in rural areas in 1999
Zaire loosing capacity of forests to provide safety valve for people since lost 17% of its forest cover between 1990-2000