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Consumer Memory. Outline. The multiple store model of memory Memory structures Memory processes Short-term memory Encoding, storage, and retrieval Consumer behavior applications Long-term memory Encoding, storage, and retrieval Consumer behavior applications.

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • The multiple store model of memory
    • Memory structures
    • Memory processes
  • Short-term memory
    • Encoding, storage, and retrieval
    • Consumer behavior applications
  • Long-term memory
    • Encoding, storage, and retrieval
    • Consumer behavior applications
slide3
THE MULTIPLE-STORE MODEL OF MEMORY

SHORT-TERM MEMORY

LONG-TERM MEMORY

SENSORY

REGISTERS

encoding

into LTM

S

  • storage of
  • declarative knowledge
    • episodic
    • semantic
  • procedural knowledge

encoding

into STM

sight

sound

touch

taste

smell

S

S

retrieval

from LTM

storage through

maintenance rehearsal

retrieval from STM

Response

structure of the memory system
Structure of the memory system
  • sensory registers:

momentary lingering of sensory data after stimulation has ceased;

  • short-term memory:

brief retention of a limited amount of sensory data that have been attended to and assigned meaning;

  • long-term memory:

relatively permanent repository of information;

memory processes
Memory processes
  • encoding:

establishment of memory representations;

  • storage:

retention of memory representations over time;

  • retrieval:

recovery of memory representations;

short term working or active memory
Short-term, working, or active memory
  • encoding: selective attention as a filter which determines what gets transferred from the sensory registers into STM;
  • storage:
    • transient character of STM (maintenance rehearsal to keep information active);
    • limited capacity of STM (can be increased through chunking);
  • retrieval: usually not a problem because information is already active;
long term memory
Long-term memory
  • encoding: establishment of new associations through elaborative rehearsal [cf. Lutz and Lutz];
  • storage: memory as a network of associations (nodes and links); importance of brand knowledge;
  • retrieval:
    • transfer of information to STM through spreading activation; depends on strength of activation of source node, strength of associations between source node and other nodes, and number of competing paths [cf. Burke and Srull];
    • importance of good retrieval cues [cf. Keller];
    • use of recognition (discrimination) and recall (reproduction) as measures of retrieval;
advertising imagery lutz and lutz
Advertising imagery (Lutz and Lutz)
  • Ss had to learn to associate unfamiliar company or brand names with a product or service;
  • the interactive imagery group saw 24 different brand-product pairs (12 with picture interaction and 12 with letter accentuation); the corresponding control group only saw the word pairs;
  • the noninteractive imagery group saw 24 brand-product pairs (12 with brand pictures and 12 with product pictures); the corresponding control group only saw the word pairs;
  • cued recall of brands based on product class as the dependent variable;
interactive imagery
Interactive imagery

Rocket

Messenger Service

Picture interaction

  • Experimental
  • Control

Letter accentuation

  • Experimental
  • Control

Rocket

Messenger Service

[No picture]

Dixon

Crane Co.

Dixon

Crane Co.

[No picture]

non interactive imagery
Non-interactive imagery

O’Bear

Abrasive Saws

Brand imagery

  • Experimental
  • Control

Product imagery

  • Experimental
  • Control

O’Bear

Abrasive Saws

[No picture]

Henneman

Security & Patrol

Service

Henneman

Security & Patrol

Service

[No picture]

advertising imagery cont d
Advertising imagery (cont’d)

picture interaction:

experimental 6.53

control 3.67

letter accentuation:

experimental 2.29

control 1.72

brand imagery:

experimental 3.21

control 2.78

product imagery:

experimental 1.74

control 2.44

Interactive imagery:

experimental 8.82

control 5.39

Noninteractive imagery:

experimental 4.95

control 5.22

in class exercise advertising imagery
In-class exercise: Advertising imagery

Find a print ad that encourages vivid imagery (through the use of imagery instructions, concrete words rich in imagery, or pictures) to help you remember the brand or information about the brand contained in the ad. What specific features make the ad memorable?

information stored in ltm
Information stored in LTM
  • episodic memory (autobiographical knowledge)

e.g., when was the last time you spent a romantic evening with someone, and where?

  • semantic memory (general world knowledge)

e.g., can you recognize the Coors logo?

what product does Anhaeuser-Busch sell?

  • procedural memory (skill knowledge)

e.g. how does one use an ATM machine, buy a subway ticket?

illustration of spreading activation
Illustration of spreading activation

BMW 135i

VW R32

German

fun to

drive

Sporty Cars

all-wheel

drive

impressive

acceleration

excellent

handling

Chevy Cobalt SS

Subaru Impreza WRX

ad repetition and competitive interference burke and srull
Ad repetition and competitive interference(Burke and Srull)
  • Ss were exposed to 22 magazine ads and where asked to judge the interest value of the ads;
  • repetition of the target ad was varied at 1, 2, or 3 exposures (positions 14, 9 & 14, or 4, 9 &14);
  • competitive interference at levels of 0, 1, 2, or 3 was manipulated through the inclusion of ads for brands in the same product class as the target ad (positions 20, 16 & 20, and 12, 16 & 20);
  • after an interpolation task cued recall with brand name and product class;
ad repetition and competitive interference cont d
claims

recalled

interference level 0

4

3

interference level 1

2

interference level 2

1

interference level 3

repetition

1

2

3

Ad repetition and competitive interference (cont’d)
effects of advertising retrieval cues keller
Effects of advertising retrieval cues (Keller)
  • Ss were exposed to 12 ads for 4 product categories (cereals, laundry detergents, etc.); in each category there was a target ad with a photo and two main product claims;
  • for two product categories ad interference was low (1 competing ad), for two it was high (3 competing ads);
  • after a distraction task, Ss were shown mock package fronts of the target products and asked to recall the two product claims; depending on the retrieval cue condition, Ss were given only brand name and product category cues (ad cue absent) or also a small reproduction of the ad photo and the ad headline (ad cue present);
effects of advertising retrieval cues cont d
claims

recalled

low interference

1.00

high interference

0.75

0.50

ad cue absent

ad cue present

Effects of advertising retrieval cues (cont’d)
ad