Colonial Legacies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Colonial Legacies Monday: RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM Wednesday: THE FORMATION OF NEW IDENTITIES

  2. RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM Always ask: Why did certain types of responses emerge? What responses were possible?

  3. CRITICAL ISSUES • What is the Nature of Western Power? • Does response require Westernization? • Is Westernization simply technology transfer, or more? • How does Westernization affect ways of life, values, beliefs?

  4. TYPES OF RESPONSES • Rebelling/Wars of Resistance • Investigating and Adapting • Embracing • Rejecting • Fusing & Resisting

  5. Western Imperialism in China to 1842-1912 Rebelling/Resistance • Goals • Open China to Western Commercial Penetration • Alter Chinese Diplomatic Forms • Legalize Opium Trade • Method • Warfare (Opium Wars, Gunboat Diplomacy) • Military Garrisons • Imposition of Unequal Treaties, Treaty Ports

  6. Rebelling/Resistance Treaty Ports = Tiny enclaves of foreign influence and government located in coastal and eastern China. --After 1860, foreigners legally free to travel. -- Missionaries had the right to work, live, own, or lease property anywhere. -- Extraterritoriality: exempt from Chinese law

  7. Rebelling/Resistance Boxer Uprising 1900 What? • Popular uprising – farmers & laborers • Martial arts, magic charms vs. Gatling gun Method: Attack missions, legations Destroy railroads and telegraph Outcome: Invasion, Retribution, crippling of government

  8. Legacy “Never Forget National Humiliation” Wall, Old Summer Palace, Beijing, P.R.China

  9. Rebelling/Resistance • Physical Rebellion From First Opium War in China (1839) to the Fifth Ashanti War in West Africa (1901): British Forces carried out over 220 military actions in Africa, Asia, and on Pacific Islands.

  10. Rebelling/Resistance US Pacific Empire • "Philippine-American War, 1899-1902” • Anti-Colonial Guerilla Warfare in Eastern Asia • Over 300,000 Filipinos • + 5000 Americans killed; • cost $640 million

  11. Rebelling/Resistance • Intellectual-Moral-Spiritual Rebellion China: Ethics vs. Western Science and Technology India: Spiritual values vs. Western Materialism Africa: Negritude Differences Basis of Nationalisms Today: Anti-Westernism, Opposition to WTO, “fundamentalist” movement

  12. Investigating and Adapting Japan: • Fact-Finding Missions to Europe and USA • Search for Secrets of Western Wealth and Power • New Westernized Education System • Restructure society - abolish social classes. • Restructure government – centralize. • Restructure economy – • Government-Industry Partnership. • Heavy Industry (Military). • Exports of Cash Crops. Westernization == “Revolution from above.”

  13. Results • China remains weak, civil war & revolution • Japan becomes Colonial Power in Asia, confronts the United States

  14. Embracing • Values -- “modernity,” “progress,” “human rights,” “nationhood,” “Christianity” • Cultural borrowing – education, high tea, uniforms, architecture, sports

  15. Embracing • Western Science/Culture Superior to Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Practices

  16. Embracing Become Modern

  17. Embracing ... Bobbed Hair, Eveready Batteries, Chi-pao dress, Tango Girls, Cigarettes

  18. Rejecting European Civilization/Science derived/stolen from others Cheik Anta Diop • African origins of humanity • First civilization – Egypt-African • Greek civilization pupil of Egypt

  19. Rejecting • Reject "civilizing" features of European colonialism • Reject "assimilation“ -- based on the false premise of White racial superiority & independent origin of European civilization

  20. Rejection not complete Arguments based on European archeology, philology, social sciences = Science understood as Universal, not culturally or racially specific Diop: Docteur es Lettres, University of Paris, Sorbonne, 1960

  21. Fusing From Anti-colonialism to Nationalism = • Bounded Territory = sovereign and indivisible • notion that People of common origin, language, beliefs should determine own form of government = self-determination

  22. Fusing Nationalism + Liberal Constitutionalism • Gandhi: Western law, Democracy + Indian Spiritual values • All Emphasize Universal Human Rights • Some give precedence to right to livelihood over political rights

  23. Fusing nationalism + socialism (collectivism) • Maoism in China Anti-colonialism fused with Western and indigenous Thought

  24. Fusing Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam -- nationalism modeled on US Declaration of Independence + socialism Emphasis on violent Revolution in Colonial World

  25. Fusing Cultural fusions • Female Emancipation • Consumer Culture • Sports: Soccer, Basketball, Olympic Games

  26. Fusing INTERNATIONAL CRICKET COUNCIL Full members: AUSTRALIA BANGLADESH ENGLAND INDIA NEW ZEALAND PAKISTAN SOUTH AFRICA SRI LANKA WEST INDIES ZIMBABWE