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Colonial Legacies . Monday : RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM Wednesday : THE FORMATION OF NEW IDENTITIES. RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM. Always ask: Why did certain types of responses emerge? What responses were possible?. CRITICAL ISSUES. What is the Nature of Western Power?

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colonial legacies

Colonial Legacies

Monday:

RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

Wednesday:

THE FORMATION OF NEW IDENTITIES

responses to european imperialism
RESPONSES TO EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

Always ask:

Why did certain types of responses emerge? What responses were possible?

critical issues
CRITICAL ISSUES
  • What is the Nature of Western Power?
  • Does response require Westernization?
  • Is Westernization simply technology transfer, or more?
  • How does Westernization affect ways of life, values, beliefs?
types of responses
TYPES OF RESPONSES
  • Rebelling/Wars of Resistance
  • Investigating and Adapting
  • Embracing
  • Rejecting
  • Fusing & Resisting
rebelling resistance

Western Imperialism in China to 1842-1912

Rebelling/Resistance
  • Goals
    • Open China to Western Commercial Penetration
    • Alter Chinese Diplomatic Forms
    • Legalize Opium Trade
  • Method
    • Warfare (Opium Wars, Gunboat Diplomacy)
    • Military Garrisons
    • Imposition of Unequal Treaties, Treaty Ports
rebelling resistance1
Rebelling/Resistance

Treaty Ports = Tiny enclaves of foreign influence and government located in coastal and eastern China.

--After 1860, foreigners legally free to travel.

-- Missionaries had the right to work, live, own, or lease property anywhere.

-- Extraterritoriality: exempt from Chinese law

slide7

Rebelling/Resistance

Boxer Uprising 1900

What?

  • Popular uprising – farmers & laborers
  • Martial arts, magic charms vs. Gatling gun

Method:

Attack missions, legations

Destroy railroads and telegraph

Outcome:

Invasion, Retribution, crippling of government

slide9

Rebelling/Resistance

  • Physical Rebellion

From First Opium War in China (1839) to the Fifth Ashanti War in West Africa (1901):

British Forces carried out over 220 military actions in Africa, Asia, and on Pacific Islands.

slide10

Rebelling/Resistance

US Pacific Empire

  • "Philippine-American War,

1899-1902”

  • Anti-Colonial Guerilla

Warfare in Eastern Asia

    • Over 300,000 Filipinos
    • + 5000 Americans killed;
    • cost $640 million
slide11

Rebelling/Resistance

  • Intellectual-Moral-Spiritual Rebellion

China: Ethics vs. Western Science and Technology

India: Spiritual values vs.

Western Materialism

Africa: Negritude

Differences Basis of Nationalisms

Today: Anti-Westernism,

Opposition to WTO,

“fundamentalist” movement

slide12

Investigating and Adapting

Japan:

  • Fact-Finding Missions to Europe and USA
  • Search for Secrets of Western Wealth and Power
  • New Westernized Education System
  • Restructure society - abolish social classes.
  • Restructure government – centralize.
  • Restructure economy –
    • Government-Industry Partnership.
    • Heavy Industry (Military).
    • Exports of Cash Crops.

Westernization == “Revolution from above.”

results
Results
  • China remains weak, civil war & revolution
  • Japan becomes Colonial Power in Asia, confronts the United States
slide14

Embracing

  • Values -- “modernity,” “progress,” “human rights,” “nationhood,” “Christianity”
  • Cultural borrowing – education, high tea, uniforms, architecture, sports
slide15

Embracing

  • Western Science/Culture Superior to Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Practices
embracing
Embracing ...

Bobbed Hair, Eveready Batteries, Chi-pao dress,

Tango Girls, Cigarettes

european civilization science derived stolen from others

Rejecting

European Civilization/Science derived/stolen from others

Cheik Anta Diop

  • African origins of humanity
  • First civilization – Egypt-African
  • Greek civilization pupil of Egypt
slide19

Rejecting

  • Reject "civilizing" features of European colonialism
  • Reject "assimilation“ -- based on the false premise of White racial superiority & independent origin of European civilization
rejection not complete
Rejection not complete

Arguments based on European archeology, philology, social sciences = Science understood as Universal, not culturally or racially specific

Diop: Docteur es Lettres, University of Paris, Sorbonne, 1960

fusing
Fusing

From Anti-colonialism to Nationalism =

  • Bounded Territory = sovereign and indivisible
  • notion that People of common origin, language, beliefs should determine own form of government = self-determination
nationalism liberal constitutionalism

Fusing

Nationalism + Liberal Constitutionalism
  • Gandhi: Western law, Democracy + Indian Spiritual values
  • All Emphasize Universal Human Rights
  • Some give precedence to right to livelihood over political rights
nationalism socialism collectivism

Fusing

nationalism + socialism (collectivism)
  • Maoism in China Anti-colonialism fused with Western and indigenous Thought
slide24

Fusing

Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam -- nationalism modeled on US Declaration of Independence + socialism

Emphasis on violent Revolution in Colonial World

cultural fusions

Fusing

Cultural fusions
  • Female Emancipation
  • Consumer Culture
  • Sports: Soccer, Basketball, Olympic Games
slide26

Fusing

INTERNATIONAL CRICKET COUNCIL

Full members: AUSTRALIA

BANGLADESH

ENGLAND

INDIA

NEW ZEALAND

PAKISTAN

SOUTH AFRICA

SRI LANKA

WEST INDIES

ZIMBABWE

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