Cliff Hangerby Jean Craighead George Vocabulary, Spelling, and Skills
belay being tied to a person or a rock with a rope for safety “On belay,” Axel’s father called out to him.
A trip down into or from something, such as a mountain descent They reached the top and were ready for their descent.
harness • a set of straps that can attach to a safety rope Axel took a dog harness and slipped it over Grit’s head.
ledge a shelf of rock Half way up the mountain he reached a ledge to hold on to.
rappel to come down a cliff by sliding down a rope I took a deep breath and began to rappel down the ridge.
trekked made a slow and difficult journey on foot. Axel and Dag trekked steadily up the rocky trail.
Other Vocabulary Cathedral – a large or important church registration book – a book used to record the names of guests at a hotel, club, or school climbing nuts – rock climbing tools that are jammed into cracks in the rock and used to anchor ropes carabiners – metal rings used by rock climbers to attach ropes to themselves or to climbing nuts avalanches –areas of rock, snow, or earth that fell down a mountain
bracing – making firm, steadying plunging – falling suddenly and quickly splats – short splashing noises void – a large, empty space handhold – something to hold on to for support foresaw – knew something before it happened vertical – straight up and down free climb – to climb without being attached to anything concentration – the act of thinking hard, staying focused.
Spelling WordsWords with short vowel patterns mix milk thick thin stick send left smell class last head friend test empty dish glance
ComprehensionCause and Effect - T49A Cause and effect is when one event brings about another event Cause – makes something happen Ask yourself, “Why does this happen?” Effect – the event that happens Ask yourself, “What happened?” Look at Practice Book page 12.
Structural Analysis/Vocabulary: Base Words T49C Many words are made by adding beginnings and endings to smaller words called base words. • In climbing, the ending –ing has been added to the base word climb. When you come to a new word look for the base word. washer washable washing washed
Base Words Write the base word on your white board. planned shivering counted comfortable drummed wrapped stopping slipping unhappy Practice Book page 16
Short Vowel Patternsa, e, and i T49D A short vowel sound is usually spelled with one vowel followed by a consonant. Find the short vowel patterns in the following phrases. The planned route Split open the black cloud Roped himself to them his left hand
Vocabulary: ABC Order in a Dictionary T49G Words in a dictionary are arranged in ABC order. • Start with the first letter. • When words begin with the same letter, move on to the second letter. friend harness hand flash Sincef comes beforehin the alphabet, friendandflashcome beforeharnessandhand. Friendandflashbegin with the same letter sowe will look at the second letter. flash friend hand harness