CHINA’S FLOURISHING CIVILIZATION1100 BCE – 200 CEVersion 2 The Three Dynasties Three Ways of Life Society and Culture
The Enduring Zhou • Chinese keep track of time by the last name of the ruling family. • Zhou (JOH) dynasty • Qin (CHIN) dynasty • Han (HAHN) dynasty
The Enduring Zhou • Claiming “Mandate of Heaven” the Zhou family defeated the ruling Shang family in 1028 BCE. • Zhou emperors ruled for 800 years!
The Enduring Zhou • Called their kings the Son of Heaven. • Who would defy a ruler called that????
Zhou Powers • First few Zhou emperors invaded and conquered many of the lands that make up China. • They set up “states” and put relatives in charge. • Figured on family loyalty.
Zhou Powers • The relative who was governor of the state could give out land to nobles – depending on the nobles’ loyalty. • Peasants worked the land under the nobles’ orders.
Did the System Work? • Family loyalty vs. GREED. • Greed won!
Zhou Power • Local lord had total authority on his lands and built his own army. • In time, they were stronger than any “Son of Heaven” Zhou.
Lack of Zhou Power • 771 BCE – Zhou kings realized they were being outpowered on the battlefields. • Were not major power players between 771 – 200 BCE.
Maybe the Zhous were not the most powerful kings – BUT they are remembered for … • Building roads • Expanded foreign trade. • Obtained horses and created CAVALRY. • The crossbow. • Iron plows for farming • Irrigation • Writing by symbols.
Zhou China • Became the most densely populated country in the world. • No famines = lots of people. • Wars were just between nobles = not many people died = lots of people.
The Mighty Qin • China gets their name from the Qin family. • 221 BCE Qins had wiped out the Zhous. • Conquered northern China. • Strong, centralized authority!
The Mighty Qin • Qin Shihuangdi (SHUR-HWONG-DEE) • Kept local nobles from becoming too powerful to control. • Devised weight and measure system • Standardized money • Standardized writing • Law code for all China.
The Mighty Qin • Shihuangdi wasn’t QUITE a nice guy. • Used slaves and forced labor to accomplish all that building.
The Great Wall of China • The Qin realized they needed better defense in the north. • Nomadic attacks
The Great Wall of China • Walls had been built, but none were connected. • Qin changed that! • 300,000 peasants toiled to build the 1,400 mile wall. • Thousands died.
Qin’s Strict Rules • Qin Shihuangdi in 213 BCE ordered all books burned not dealing with “practical” things • Agriculture • Medicine • Magic • 460 scholars who resisted were executed.
Qin’s Strict Rules “Anyone referring to the past to criticize the present … shall be put to death.” Qin Shihuangdi
Qin’s Strict Rule • Subjects hated him. • Thought he had lost the Mandate of Heaven. • Nobles hated his destroying their power. • Peasants hated his forced labor gangs. • Scholars hated his burning of books.
210 BCE: Qin Died • The dynasty itself came to an end. • BUT New ways of of organizing a nation were kept for nearly 2000 years.
The Glorious Han • 207 BCE: Liu Bang (LYOH BONG) overthrew the Qin government. • Military official with a peasant background. • 202 BCE defeated all who challenged him.
The Glorious Han • Family ruled until 220 CE, more than 400 years. • Used Qin government structure but without the cruelty. • Well, MOSTLY without cruelty.
The Glorious Han • Greatest Leader was Wudi (WOO-DEE). • Ruled 141 – 87 BCE. • Dynamic and talented. • Expanded China’s borders.
The Glorious Han • Wudi sent a general and explorer to see what was west of China. • General Zhang Quian (JAHNG CHYEN) came back 13 years later.
The Glorious Han • General Zhang Quian had his army wiped out and had been a captive for ten years. • Described a people with huge cities of people with short hair, riding in chariots and wore embroidered robes.
Who? • General Zhang Quian had been to ROME. • For the first time, China was made aware there was another kingdom as great as theirs.
The Silk Road • Wudi, hearing the tales, started expanding trade routes called THE SILK ROAD. • Allowed trade of Chinese silk for Middle Eastern and European products like gold, glassware, wool and linen. • Took 7 years for a round-trip!
Pax Sinica • Pax Sinica = Chinese Peace. • 400 years of prosperity and stability.
Wudi Reforms during the Pax Sinica • Government agents stored excess food in good times – to use in famine times. • Chose government people on skills NOT because of family connections. • Took tests in what became the CIVIL SERVICE.
Rise of the Mandarins • Since usually only the rich could afford an education – they were the ones that could pass the tests. • Mandarins: Well-education civil servants controlled the government until the 1900s CE.
End of the Hans • 220 CE. • Left a lasting legacy in government, technology, science and the arts.
Section 2: Three Ways of Life • Confucianism • Daoism (Taoism) • Buddhism
Confucianism • Kongzi • Born 551 BCE to poor family • 12 years he wandered China looking for a position as a government advisor. • Found a better way to spread his ideas for peace – be a teacher.
Basic Beliefs of Confucianism • Ethics to live by: • Respect for family, especially elders. • Filial Piety • Reverence for past and its traditions
Confucianism • Taught “filial piety” (children’s respect for parents) • Believed parent / child relationship represents society in miniature and that teachings at home prepare children for life in community.
Confucianism • Government was to set example of righteous conduct. • Rulers must be • Ethical • Have integrity • Inspire loyalty • Understand proper behavior • Appreciate culture
Confucianism After Confucius • The Zhou government did not accept Confucius’s teachings during his life. • Later scholars added their ideas. • Made Confucianism into a religion.
Confucianism After Confucius • During the Han Dynasty, Confucius’ teachings provided the basics for Wudi’s civil service system. • Basis of Chinese society and government until 1900s.
Daoism • Time: 500 BCE • Origination: China • Founder: Laozi “Old Master” • Written Documents: Dao De Jing, a classical writing.
Laozi (LOW-DZUH) • Rejected formal social structures of Confucius. • Shunned public life – so little is known about him.
Basic Beliefs of Daoism • Emphasis on harmony and nature, simplicity • Ying and Yang, two opposing forces present in all nature; must be in balance to achieve harmony.
Daoism • By emphasizing harmony with nature, Daoists deeply influenced Chinese painting and poetry.
A person could be BOTH a Daoist and Confucian • Confucianism was knowing your place in the social order. • Daoism emphasized harmony with the individual attuned to nature.
Buddhism in China • Buddhism reached China as the Han Dynasty was collapsing. • Emphasis on personal salvation in Nirvana appealed to many. Pagodas instead of Stupas
Buddhism Blended with Chinese Religions • Confucianism could follow its Eightfold Path. • Daoists could admire the meditation. • Buddhism was widely embraced by China by 400 CE.
Section 3: Society and CultureFamily Life • Family did not relate as equals. • Hierarchy – levels of importance. • Head of Family was eldest male. • Next was all the males by age.
Family Life Hierarchy • Next was the mother • All daughters down to youngest or childless daughter-in-laws. • All family expected obedience from those beneath them.
Family Rules • Family members knew their rules and not doing their duties as expected brought dishonor on the family. • Duty to ancestors kept you loyal even after death.
Family Rules • Han Families were not EXTENDED. • Different generations living together. • Aunts, Uncles, Cousins, Grandparents. • Families were like today’s NUCLEAR FAMILIES. • Parents and Children
Family Rules • Father assigned children’s careers, determined education, arranged marriages, controlled finances and gave rewards and punishments. • Had to provide for old, sick and even lazy.