Chapter 4. Arousal, Stress, & Anxiety. Arousal. Arousal – blend of physiological & psychological activity in a person AND the intensity at the moment. Arousal intensity is on a continuum – low (coma) to high (increased heart rate & respiration, sweat) Can be pleasant or unpleasant. Anxiety.
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Arousal, Stress, & Anxiety
1) State anxiety – the ever-changing mood component
2) Trait Anxiety - a part of the personality – an acquired behavioral tendency of disposition that influences behavior
High trait-anxious people usually have more state anxiety in highly competitive, evaluative situations than do people with lower trait anxiety.
Generally, if you have high trait anxiety, you will have high state anxiety.
You can intervene at any time
1-Situational sources of stress
2-Personal sources of stress
- Related to social-
Social facilitation theory – predicts that the presence of others helps performance on well-learned or simple tasks and inhibits or lessens performance on unlearned or complex tasks.
2) Inverted-U Hypothesis –as arousal increases, so does performance up to an optimal point where best performance results, Further increases in arousal, however, cause performance to decline.
or have to make
complex decisions (quarterback).
Maximum arousal level is higher when: skills are mostly large muscle actions (weight lifter) or simple decisions are needed (cross country skiing).
a) Multidimensional Anxiety Theory
b) Catastrophe Model – performance deteriorates with worry + high physical arousal
c) Reversal – how the athlete interprets arousal will impact performance. (Can shift positive to negative and vice versa.)
a) Help athletes find this combination
b) Help athletes use strategies to maintain this combination.
3) Recognize the signs of increased arousal and anxiety in participants
Tailor coaching & instructional practices to individuals.
Ex- High trait anxiety + low self-esteem in a very evaluative situation = de-emphasize situation and stress athlete’s preparation.
Moderate levels of trait anxiety + moderate self esteem in high stress = ok
Develop confidence in performers to help them cope with increased stress and anxiety.