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Ch. 10: South Asia

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  1. Ch. 10: South Asia Rowntree, et. al. Modified by J. Naumann, UMSL

  2. Chapter 12:South Asia(Fig. 12.1) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  3. Learning Objectives • Understand the unique climatological challenges of this region, which include monsoons and cyclones, and accompanying flooding • Learn about the challenges and strategies of feeding a large and growing population • Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of South Asia • Understand the following concepts and models: -Monsoon -Green Revolution -Caste system -Hinduism -Mughal Empire -Orographic rainfall -Subcontinent -Indian diaspora Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  4. KEY CONCEPTS APPLICABLE TO THE REALM • CENTRIPETAL - CENTRIFUGAL FORCES • FORWARD CAPITAL • ISLAMABAD • IRREDENTISM – boundaries that divide groups • PATHANS (OR PASHTUNS) OF PAKISTAN RELATED TO PEOPLES OF CENTRAL AFGHANISTAN • FEDERAL SYSTEM • ADOPTED BY INDIA IN 1947 • PROVIDES REGIONS AND PEOPLES WITH SOME AUTONOMY AND IDENTITY Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  5. Introduction • The Himalayan Mountains are in South Asia • Called the Indian subcontinent • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives • South Asia is the world’s second most populous region • The population is growing, raising concerns about food production keeping pace • South Asia was a British colony for several centuries • Since achieving in 1947, India and Pakistan have been embroiled in conflict; both countries have nuclear weapons • This region is one of the world’s poorest Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  6. Creation of the Realm Continental Drift Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  7. Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim • The Film Star and the Poacher King • Outlaw and poacher Koose Veerappan kidnapped film star Rajkumar in a case that illustrates culture and politics in South Asia Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  8. Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim • Environmental Issues in South Asia • 1984 explosion at Bhopal fertilizer plant killed 2,500 people – inadequate supervision of foreign investors • Natural Hazards in Bangladesh • Ganges and Brahmaputra river deltas flood in wet summer monsoons; dense settlement there causes many deaths • Forests and Deforestation • Ganges Valley and coastal plains of India deforested for agriculture • Deforestation’s causes: agricultural, urban, and industrial expansion • Problems: fuel wood shortage leads to use of manure which then cannot be used as fertilizer Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  9. Environmental Issues in South Asia (cont.) • South Asia’s Monsoon Climates • Monsoon: the distinct seasonal change of wind direction; in South Asia • Summer monsoon brings rain and flooding to Bangladesh • Winter monsoon is dry • Orographic rainfall: precipitation from the uplifting and cooling of moist winds; it occurs in the Western Ghats and Himalayas • Rain-shadow effect: the area of low rainfall found on the leeward (or downwind side) of a mountain range • Drier conditions in Pakistan Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  10. MONSOONS • “To know India and her people, one has to know the monsoon.” • To the people of India the monsoons are a source of life. • From an Arabic word meaning seasonal reversal of winds • General onshore movement in summer • General offshore flow in winter • Very distinctive seasonal precipitation regime – Two monsoons – wet one & dry one Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  11. Monsoon Principles • Wind is a horizontal movement of air from a high pressure area to a low pressure area. • Land surfaces heat up and cool off more quickly and to a greater degree than water bodies. • During the warmer months, a low pressure tends to develop over land and a high pressure over the adjacent water bodies. (wet monsoon) • During the cooler months, a high pressure tends to develop over land and a low pressure over the adjacent land areas. (dry monsoon) • This results in the shifting of the prevailing winds -- MONSOONS Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  12. Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  13. Seasons NOT defined by temperature patterns, but by precipitation patterns Seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction Dry monsoon Wet monsoon Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  14. MONSOON RAINS MAY BRING DISASTEROUS FLOODS TO BANGLADESH ESSENTIAL FOR RICE PRODUCTION. HOWEVER… Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  15. Low Elevations • Purple shades are highlands • Orange is for “uplands” – dissected plateaus • All the other colors are for types of plains – easily flooded areas Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  16. Massive Delta Region • Brahmaputra Delta Thousands of tributaries and distributaries that can flood (only the larger ones are shown on the map.) • Ganges Delta Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  17. Rice is Dependant on the Monsoons Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  18. POTENTIALLY NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MONSOONS RESULTS OF CATASTROPHIC RAINFALL • Widespread flooding • Property damage • Destruction to agricultural lands • Damage to transportation infrastructure • Homelessness • Disease • Malnutrition • Serious injury • Death Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  19. Climates of South Asia (Fig. 12.6) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  20. Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim (cont.) • The Four Subregions of South Asia • Mountains of the North • Collision of Indian Subcontinent with Asian landmass • Himalayas, Karakoram Range, Arakan Yoma Mountains • Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands • Lowlands created by three major river systems • Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers • Peninsular India • Deccan Plateau covers most of India, is bordered by Eastern and Western Ghats (mountains) • The Southern Islands • Sri Lanka (1 island) and Maldives (1,200 small islands) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  21. PhysicalGeography of South Asia(Fig. 12.2) Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Peninsular India Mountains of the North The Southern Islands Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  22. Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma • India has more than 1 billion people • Concern about producing enough food • India’s TFR at 3.2, but preference for males creates problems • Pakistan has 145 million people • Pakistan lacks an effective, coordinated family planning program • Overall TFR is 5.6; RNI is 2.8% • Linked to Muslim culture • Early childhood mortality, and low rate of female contraception • Bangladesh has 133.5 million people • Has one of the highest settlement densities in the world • TFR is 3.3 • Strong government support for family planning • Muslim culture, but more flexible Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  23. Population Density POPULATION DENSITY (INDIA) ARITHMETIC- 904/sq mi PHYSIOLOGIC- 1,615/sq mi (US=415/sq mi) World Average = 117/mi2 36 Pacific SoutheastAsia 315 Southeast Asia EastAsia 341 SouthAsia 865 South Asia SubsaharanAfrica Subsaharan Africa 82 N. Africa/S.W. Asia 52 N. Africa/S.W. Asia SouthAmerica 53 South America 176 MiddleAmerica Middle America 7.6 Austral 874 Japan Japan NorthAmerica 42 North America Russia Russia 22 265 Europe Europe 0 400 600 800 1000 200 Realm People per square mile Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  24. PopulationMap ofSouth Asia(Fig. 12.8) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  25. POPULATION DENSITY COMPARISON United States - Bangladesh UNITED STATES 77people/ sqmile BANGLADESH 133,000,000 50,300 2,644people/ sqmile Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  26. Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) • Migration and the Settlement Landscape • South Asia is one of the least urbanized regions of the world • Majority live in compact rural villages • Rural-to-urban migration caused by agricultural changes • Most settlement near fertile soils and dependable water sources • Agricultural Regions and Activities • Agriculture has historically been unproductive • Green Revolution: agricultural techniques based on hybrid crop strains and heavy use of industrial fertilizers and chemical pesticides • Greatly increased agricultural yields in South Asia • High social and cultural costs Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  27. Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) • Agricultural Regions and Activities • Crop Zones • Rice: lower Ganges Valley, lowlands of India’s eastern and western coasts, delta lands of Bangladesh, Pakistan’s lower Indus Valley, and Sri Lanka • Wheat: northern Indus Valley, western half of India’s Ganges Valley • Punjab is India’s “breadbasket” • Millet and sorghum in less fertile areas Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  28. WHAT CLIMATE VARIABLES HELP TO EXPLAIN THIS DISTRIBUTION? • Cooler to the north and warmer to the south • Drier in the west and wetter in the east • Orographic precipitation in the south Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  29. Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) • The Green Revolution • Use of hybrid, high-yield seeds to bolster production • 1970 to 1990s: India more than doubled annual grain production • Only more prosperous farmers could afford to adopt seeds and use mechanization • Environmental problems from dependency on chemical fertilizers and pesticides • Poorer farmers forced from their lands • Salinization in irrigated areas Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  30. Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) • Urban South Asia • About 25% of the South Asian population resides in urban areas • Many live in bustees (sprawling squatter settlements) • Mumbai (Bombay) • Largest city in South Asia • Financial, commercial, and industrial center • Less-fortunate immigrants live in “hutments” – crude shelters built on formerly busy sidewalks • Delhi/New Delhi • More than 11 million people • India’s capital, has British colonial imprint • Air pollution a problem Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  31. Mumbai (Bombay) Boy begging from motorists Three ages in architecture: colonial, modern, and pre-colonial. Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  32. Modern Hotel Red Fort Mosque (disused) Lotus Temple Parliament Delhi street scene Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  33. Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) • Urban South Asia (cont.) • Calcutta • More than 12 million people • Problems: poverty, pollution, congestion, homelessness • Karachi • More than 7 million people • Pakistan’s largest city • Political and ethnic tensions between Sindis (native inhabitants) and Muhajirs (Muslim refugees from India) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  34. Calcutta Street scene Modern Business District Children on school bus Jain temple Outdoor market Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  35. Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries • Since its inception in 1948, India has been a secular state • Growth of Hindu nationalism: movement promoting Hindu values as essential and exclusive fabric of Indian society • Tensions between Hindus and Muslims in India • Tensions between fundamentalists and secularists in Pakistan • Origins of South Asian Civilizations • Indus Valley civilization established 5,000 years ago • By 800 B.C., a new urban focus in Ganges Valley • Hindu Civilization • Hinduism: a complicated faith without a single, uniformly accepted system of belief • Sanskrit: sacred languages of Hinduism • Caste system: strict division of Hindu society into ranked hereditary groups Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  36. Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) • Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.) • Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama (563 B.C.), the Buddha • From elite caste, but rejected wealth and power • Sought to attain mystical union with the universe (enlightenment) • Faith spread throughout South Asia, and East, Southeast, and Central Asia, but retreated from South Asia • Arrival of Islam • Around 700 A.D. Arab armies conquered lower Indus Valley • Mughal Empire, a powerful Muslim state, dominated • Conversion in northwest (Pakistan) and Northeast (Bangladesh) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  37. Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) • Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.) • The Caste System • Regional variations, religious differences in acceptance of caste system • Caste: complex social order • Varna: ancient fourfold social hierarchy of the Hindu world • Jati: refers to local hundreds of local endogamous groups • Castes include Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras • Scheduled castes or “untouchables” or dalits Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  38. Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) • Contemporary Geographies of Religion • Hinduism • Major faith of India and Nepal • Forms of worship differ by region • Islam • 400 million Muslims in the region, among the largest Muslim communities in the world • Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives are mostly Muslim • In India, Muslims concentrated in the cities, in the north, the upper and central Ganges plain, and in Kerala • Sikhism • Sikhism: faith incorporating elements of Hinduism and Islam • Originated in Punjab in 1400s, still concentrated in Punjab • Sikh men noted for work as soldiers and bodyguards Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  39. HINDUISM • Not just a religion – an intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, & artistic elements • No common creed • No single doctrine • No direct divine revelation • No rigid narrow moral code • No leadership hierarchy • Can be practiced on different levels of spirituality – mainly an individual enterprise • Has had the ability to absorb competing religious ideologies – except for Islam Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  40. MONOTHEISM OR POLYTHEISM? • BRAHMAN – the “Ultimate Reality” – something like “The Force” of Star Wars –not a “personal” god –impersonal force under girding all • BRAHMA – the creator – & many incarnations • VISHNU – the sustainer – & many incarnations • SHIVA – the destroyer – & many incarnations • CYCLES OF CREATION (somewhat like reincarnation of the universe) – we’re in 4th cycle • When reincarnation ceases, one becomes one with Brahman Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  41. Shiva – the Destroyer • Shiva-nataraja – incarnation as the king of dancers – very common symbol of Shiva Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  42. Hindu Temple Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  43. MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM • Four main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the caste system • Reincarnation • Karma • Dharma • Ahimsa Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  44. REINCARNATION • Every living thing has a soul. • When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature (transmigration of souls). • Souls are reborn in a newly created human or animal life. • This continues until the “ultimate reality” is fully understood (one sees the Atman is also Brahman)– then it ceases Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  45. KARMA • Every action brings about certain results. • There is no escaping the consequences of one’s actions. • Good behavior is rewarded when the soul is reborn into a higher ranking living creature. • Karma is somewhat the result of one’s approach to one’s dharma. Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  46. DHARMA • A set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation. This ties into the caste system. • Sometimes seen as analogous to duty • Each person’s dharma is different. Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  47. Ahimsa • Seeing all life as sacred – a part of a “oneness” • Results in the life principle of non-violence • Supports the idea of being in harmony with nature • A principle also found in Jainism and Buddhism Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  48. THREE BASIC PRACTICES • Puja or worship – corporate worship not required – largely individual practices • Cremation of the dead • Regulations of the caste system Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  49. Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) • Contemporary Geographies of Religion (cont.) • Buddhism and Jainism • Buddhism virtually disappeared in India but persisted in Sri Lanka, mainland Southeast Asia, and the high valleys of the Himalayas • Jainism – religion that emerged around 500 B.C. as protest to orthodox Hinduism • Stressed extreme non-violence • Other Religious Groups • Parsis (Zoroastrians): an ancient religion focusing on the cosmic struggle between good and evil • Concentrated in the Mumbai area • More Indian Christians than either Parsis or Jains • British missionaries converted animists to Protestantism Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  50. ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM • Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) – founder searching for understanding of suffering • Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.) Spread Buddhism in India Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff