slide1 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
GI JEOPARDY! PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 50

GI JEOPARDY! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

GI JEOPARDY! . Upper GI Problems. Lower GI Problems. A & P. GI Tests. 25. 25. 25. 25. 50. 50. 50. 50. 75. 75. 75. 75. 100. 100. 100. 100. 150. 150. 150. 150. 200. 200. 200. 200. A & P: 25 pts.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'GI JEOPARDY!' - ostinmannual

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript




Upper GI Problems

Lower GI


A & P

GI Tests

























a p 25 pts
A & P: 25 pts

Name 3 physical factors and 1 psychological factor which can affect the function of the GI tract. (Be specific).


answer a p 25 pts
Answer: A&P 25 pts
  • Mobility
  • Diet:
    • Fat / Fiber / Spices
    • ETOH / caffeine
  • Medication:
    • Antacids / Antibiotics
  • Smoking
  • Stress / Anxiety
a p 50 pts
A & P: 50 pts

Part 1:

This structure prevents reflux / regurgitation of stomach secretions into the esophagus.

Part 2:

This structure prevents aspiration of fluids / solids into the trachea.


answer a p 50 pts
Answer: A&P 50 pts
  • What is the LES (Lower Esophageal Sphincter)?
    • Remains contracted most of the time
    • Relaxes for swallowing / belching / vomiting
  • What is the epiglottis?
    • Opens  breathing / talking
    • Closes  eating / drinking
a p 75 pts
A & P: 75 pts

This substance is needed for Vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine.

(Name the substance and where it is made).


answer a p 75 pts
Answer: A&P 75 pts
  • What is

Intrinsic Factor

(which is made in

the stomach)?

a p 100 pts
A & P: 100 pts

This is where digestion is completed and most absorption takes place.


answer a p 100 pts
Answer: A&P 100 pts
  • What is the small intestine?
    • 23 feet for absorption
    • Inflammation / disease or removal

of part of the bowel will result in

less absorption of essential

nutrients / calories.

a p 150 pts
A & P: 150 pts

This organ:

Regulates glucose

(by storing / breaking down glycogen);

Stores nutrients

(vitamins, minerals, proteins);

Makes essential nutrients

(clotting factors, transferrin, proteins, bile);

Breaks down substances / wastes.

(cholesterol, RBC, protein, meds)


answer a p 150 pts
Answer: A&P 150 pts

What is the liver?

If damaged / diseased can

lead to:

bilirubin / ammonia levels

glucose levels

Bleeding problems

cholesterol levels

Drug toxicity

a p 200 pts
A & P: 200 pts

This organ supports the

GI system by releasing many enzymes needed to promote digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

(Name the organ and 3 enzymes it produces).


answer a p 200 pts
Answer: A&P 200 pts

What is the pancreas?

Enzymes it produces:

Amylase  carbohydrates

Lipase  fat

Trypsin / Peptidase  proteins

Bicarbonate neutralizes stomach acids

gi tests 25 pts
GI Tests: 25 pts

This physical assessment technique is done to localize the area of pain in the abdomen.


answer gi tests 25 pts
Answer: GI Tests 25 pts

What is rebound tenderness?


  • Auscultate 1st(2-5 mins in each quadrant),

then palpate or irrigate NG

  • Palpate most painful area last!!
gi tests 50 pts
GI Tests: 50 pts

This test looks for hidden blood in the stool.


answer gi tests 50 pts
Answer: GI Tests 50 pts

What is a Guaiac / Hemoccult test?

**Should be done on a yearly basis, starting at

age 50, to screen for colorectal cancer!!

gi tests 75 pts
GI Tests: 75 pts

This invasive procedure requires:

Informed consent;

Clear liquids day prior / NPO after midnoc;

Laxatives / enemas before;

IV conscious sedation.

A flexible tube with a lighted scope is inserted into the large intestine during this procedure.


answer gi tests 75 pts
Answer: GI Tests 75 pts

What is a colonscopy?

  • Direct visualization of colon

(polyps, diverticuli, masses)

  • Gold standard for Colon Cancer screening / dx

(done q 10 years & prn based on findings)

  • Expect cramping / flatus after test
  • Monitor for bleeding / perforation / infection after test
gi tests 100 pts
GI Tests: 100 pts

This test requires:

NPO 8-12 hrs before;

Ingestion of liquid barium;

Laxatives / fluids after.


answer gi tests 100 pts
Answer: GI Tests 100 pts

What is an UGI Series / Barium Swallow?

(SBFT: Small Bowel Follow Through)

  • Looking for: strictures / masses / hernias
  • Stools will be white after the test


LGI Series (Lower GI Series) / Barium Enema

  • Looking for polyps, lesions, diverticuli
  • Requires laxatives / enemas before
gi tests 150 pts
GI Tests: 150 pts

This invasive procedure requires:

Informed consent;

NPO status;

IV conscious sedation;

Lidocaine spray to numb the throat.

A flexible lighted scope is passed through the esophagus, stomach and into the duodenum during this procedure.


answer gi tests 150 pts
Answer: GI Tests 150 pts

What is an EGD?


  • Direct visualization of upper GI tract
  • Looking for:

GERD / Ulcers / Hiatal Hernia

  • Bx / cautery / removal
  • After test:
    • Protect airway
      • NPO until gag reflex returns and pt is awake
      • HOB elevated / side-lying position
    • Monitor for bleeding / perforation / infection
gi tests 200 pts
GI Tests: 200 pts

This noninvasive procedure requires:

NPO 2-6 hrs before test;

No smoking 8-12 hrs before test.

It is usually the 1st test done to visualize the size / shape / integrity of internal organs of the abdomen.


answer gi tests 200 pts
Answer: GI Tests 200 pts

What is an Abdominal Ultrasound?

Notes: Gallstones / Obstructions / Masses

Appendicitis / Liver enlargement

upper gi probs 25 pts
Upper GI Probs: 25 pts

Risk factors include:

5 F’s: Female, Fat, 40, Fertile, Family;

Sedentary lifestyle;

High fat diet;

Trauma / infection to area.

(Name disease process & 2 common S/S).


answer ugi probs 25 pts
Answer: UGI Probs 25 pts

What is Gall Bladder


(Cholelithiasis: gallstones)

(Cholecystitis: inflammation of GB)


  • Indigestion / N/V / heartburn & flatulence

(esp after high fat meal)

  • RUQ pain (biliary colic) radiation to shoulder / back

(Demerol: drug of choice to decrease spasms)

  • Tachycardia, diaphoresis, fever, restlessness
  • Obstruction (D/T stones in bile duct):
    • Jaundice / White, clay-colored stools
    • Bleeding problems
    • Pancreatitis / Hepatitis
upper gi probs 50 pts
Upper GI Probs: 50 pts

This syndrome is treated with:

Dietary changes  No spices, citrus, fatty foods,

No caffeine, ETOH

Lifestyle changes Small freq meals

No bedtime snacks

Bed up on blocks

Wt loss / No smoking

Meds  Antacids / H2 blockers / PPI.

(Name syndrome, 2 causes and 2 S/S).


answer ugi probs 50 pts
Answer: UGI Probs 50 pts

What is GERD?(Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease)


Weakened LES

Delayed gastric emptying

Impaired esophageal motility

Hiatal Hernia

S/S (esp after eating irritating foods):

Pyrosis (heartburn)

Regurgitation (sour liquid coming up throat)

Sore throat / hoarseness / lump in throat

Post meal N/V & fullness

Resp S/S (wheezing / cough / SOB) due to aspiration

upper gi probs 75 pts
Upper GI Probs: 75 pts

What type of medications can be used to treat GERD?

(Name 3 categories of medications and an example of each).


answer ugi probs 75 pts
Answer: UGI probs 75 pts


Maalox / Mylanta

Histamine (H2) Blockers:

Zantac / Pepcid / Axid / Tagamet

Proton Pump Inhibitors:

Prilosec / Nexium / Protonix / Aciphex / Prevacid

Other meds:

Antiulcer meds: Carafate / Gaviscon

Prokinetic agents: Reglan

Cholinergic agents: Urecholine

Surgical tx: when diet / meds fail, HH, complications

  • Nissen Fundoplication
upper gi probs 100 pts
Upper GI Probs:100 pts


This disease process is caused by:

Irritating foods / caffeine

Smoking / ETOH

Medications (ASA / NSAIDS / steroids)

Bacteria (H. Pylori)

which can lead to GI bleeding / ulcers, anemia and gastric cancer if not treated.

(Name disease and 2 tx options).

answer ugi probs 100 pts
Answer: UGI Probs 100 pts

What is Gastritis?

Tx options:

Rest stomach

Treat nausea / pain

Change diet BLAND

Medications: Antacids, H2 blockers, PPI


Vit B12 (chronic gastritis)

upper gi probs 150 pts
Upper GI Probs: 150 pts


This invasive procedure includes the insertion of a lighted scope into the esophagus, stomach and duodenum and back up into the common bile duct to retrieve stones or material causing obstruction and / or place stents.


answer ugi probs 150 pts
Answer: UGI probs 150 pts

What is an ERCP?

(Endoscopic Retrograde CholangioPancreatography)


**Monitor for pancreatitis after procedure

(due to manipulation of common bile duct)

upper gi probs 200 pts
Upper GI Probs: 200 pts

Describe the medical and surgical treatment options for a client with GB disease.


answer ugi probs 200 pts
Answer: UGI probs 200 pts

Medical Tx for GB disease:

Tx S/S: pain, nausea, infection, fluids / lytes

Stone removal / duct dilatation

Low fat diet

Surgical Tx for GB disease:

Lap vs Open Cholecystectomy

Routine post-op care

Drains: T-tube—to keep duct open

Right shoulder pain: D/T CO2 movement

lower gi probs 25 pts
Lower GI Probs: 25 pts

Part 1:

These are out-pouchings of the large

intestine (sigmoid colon) caused by age and / or lack of fiber and fluid in the diet.

Part 2:

These are excess growths that project into the bowel (sigmoid colon) and are often seen and removed during a routine colonoscopy.


answer lgi probs 25 pts
Answer: LGI Probs 25 pts

What are diverticuli?

  • Usually asymptomatic until inflamed

(diverticulitis) which can lead to

increased pain, fever, bleeding,

obstruction &/or perforation.

What are polyps?

  • Usually asymptomatic / benign
  • All polyps are considered abnormal

(a risk factor for colon cancer) and removed

lower gi probs 50 pts
Lower GI Probs: 50 pts

This disease process occurs more often in teenage males and is caused by a blockage / build up of stool, lymph tissue or foreign material.

(Name disease & 2 common S/S).


answer lgi probs 50 pts
Answer: LGI Probs 50 pts

What is an Appendicitis?

S/S:Periumbilical / RLQ pain

Rebound tenderness

Muscle guarding

Anorexia / N/V / fever

Tx: Control pain (ice / no heat,

limit narcotics until dx made)

Confirm dx (Ultrasound / CT scan)

Prompt surgical removal

lower gi probs 75 pts
Lower GI Probs: 75 pts

The S/S of this problem include:

Rigid / board-like abdomen;

Abdominal distention;

Abd pain / tenderness;

Absence of bowel sounds;

Tachycardia / tachypnea;

Fever / diaphoresis.


answer lgi probs 75 pts
Answer: LGI Probs 75 pts

What is peritonitis?

Can be caused by:

Perforation of internal abd organ

(appendix / bowel / diverticuli / ulcer)

Can lead toSepsis Shock

Organ failure  Death!

Requires: Prompt recognition / tx!!

**Need to support ABC’s 1st,

then investigate / tx the cause.

lower gi probs 100 pts
Lower GI Probs: 100 pts

How does tx of diverticulosisdiffer from tx of diverticulitis?


answer lgi probs 100 pts
Answer: LGI Probs 100 pts

Tx of Diverticulosis:

Increase fiber / fluids (no nuts, seeds, popcorn)

Bulk laxatives

Anticholinergics: short term use

Wt loss

Decrease intra-abd pressure

Tx of Diverticulitis: Acute situation!!

Bowel rest: NPO / IV fluids

Bed rest

IV antibiotics

? Surgery: needed in 30% of cases

lower gi probs 150 pts
Lower GI Probs: 150 pts

Where do intestinal obstructions occur most often and why?

(Name location and

2 mechanical causes &

2 non-mechanical causes).


answer lgi probs 150 pts
Answer: LGI Probs 150 pts

Small Intestine

(23 feet of narrow bowel)

Mechanical causes:

Adhesions / scar tissue


Neoplasms / tumors

Twisted bowel

Non-mechanical causes:

Lack of nerve stimuli

Lack of blood flow (emboli / ischemia)

Paralytic ileus / Immobility

Electrolyte imbalance (low K+ levels)


lower gi probs 200 pts
Lower GI Probs: 200 pts


Name three common S/S of a bowel obstruction

and how they are treated:

medically vs surgically.

answer lgi probs 200 pts
Answer: LGI Probs 200 pts

S/S: N/V (esp with SBO)

Abdominal pain / distention

Tympanic or absent bowel sounds

No flatus or BM

Medical tx: Surgical tx:

Support ABC’s!! Bowel rx / anastomosis

Thorough GI assessment: Bowel rx / ostomy

BS / N/V / pain / firmness Stoma: beefy red / moist

Decompress bowel: edematous

NG to LIS / NG management shrinks as it heals

Maintain fluid / electrolyte balance

IV fluids / NPO / I&O