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B.A. (Mahayana Studies) 000-209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 - March 2006 8. The Internet PowerPoint Presentation
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B.A. (Mahayana Studies) 000-209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 - March 2006 8. The Internet A close look at the Internet and the Web, and a mention of other Internet services. Overview 1. The Internet 2. A Brief Internet History 3. TCP/IP 4. Connecting to the Internet

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slide1

B.A. (Mahayana Studies)000-209 Introduction to Computer ScienceNovember 2005 - March 20068. The Internet

A close look at the Internet and the Web, and a mention of other Internet services.

overview
Overview
  • 1. The Internet
  • 2. A Brief Internet History
  • 3. TCP/IP
  • 4. Connecting to the Internet
  • 5. The Web
  • 6. Web Browsers

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide3
7. Web Search Engines
  • 8. Web Portals
  • 9. Blogs and Blogging
  • 10. Web Page Content
  • 11. Writing a Web Page
  • 12. Other Internet Services

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

1 the internet
1. The Internet
  • The Internet is a collection of local, regional, national, and international computer networks, linked together to exchange data and distribute processing tasks.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

internet map 2005
Internet Map 2005

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

the size of the internet
The Size of the Internet

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

2 a brief internet history
2. A Brief Internet History
  • The Internet has been around for over 30 years.
  • 1958: the US created ARPA (the Advanced Research Projects Agency).
    • to help scientists communicate and share computer resources
    • triggered in part by the Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik in 1957, the first artificial satellite

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide8
The ARPANET, created in 1969, connected computers at four universities
  • 1971: 15 nodes:
    • UCLA, SRI, UCSB, Univ of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND, SDC, Harvard, Lincoln Lab, Stanford, UIU(C), CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide9
1982: TCP/IP
    • standard network communications protocol
    • DoD declares TCP/IP suite to be standard for DoD
  • 1984: DNS introduced
    • translates domain names into IP addresses
    • example domain name: fivedots.coe.psu.ac.th

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide10
1985: Symbolics.com is assigned the first registered domain (March).
    • Other firsts: cmu.edu, purdue.edu, rice.edu, ucla.edu (April); css.gov (June); mitre.org, .uk (July)
  • 1988: 2 November: the Internet worm travels through the Internet, affecting ~6,000 of the 60,000 machines

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide11
1991: World-Wide Web (WWW or Web) released by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN
    • CERN: the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland
  • 1995: the Web becomes the Internet service with the largest amount of traffic.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide12
2000: Abilene backbone network deploys IPv6 (16 May)
  • 2002: A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack strikes the 13 main DNS servers, knocking out 8 of them (21-23 Oct).

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide13
2004: CERNET2, the first backbone IPv6 network in China, is launched by the China Education and Research Network (CERN)
    • it connects 25 universities in 20 cities at speeds of 1-10Gbps (27 Dec)

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide14
Sources of internet history:
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet
    • http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/
    • http://www.computerhistory.org/exhibits/internet_history/

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

3 tcp ip
3. TCP/IP
  • TCP/IP(Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
    • a suite of protocols that defines the internet
    • TCP/IP software is available for every major kind of computer operating system.
  • FTP, HTTP, UDP, SNMP, telnet protocols, and many others run on top of TCP/IP.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide16
FTP: file transfer over the Internet
  • HTTP: Web page transfer
  • UDP: a simple, fast communications protocol, used to implement higher-level streaming media protocols
  • SNMP: network management
  • telnet: used to login to remote machines

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

internet addresses
Internet Addresses
  • Every computer that connects to the Internet is assigned a unique integer called anIP address.
    • a 32 bit integer, represented by a set of four numbers between 0 and 255, separated by periods
    • e.g. 172.30.0.5
  • A router examines the IP address and then forwards a message to its destination.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide18
Most host computers have an easier-to-remember domain name.
    • typed in lowercase
    • ends with a two or three letter extension which is its top-leveldomain
    • e.g. takasila.coe.psu.ac.th(th is for thailand, ac is for academic)

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

some top level domains
Some Top-level Domains

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

colour coded internet map
Colour-coded Internet Map

The Opte Project

http://opte.prolexic.com/

January 2005

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide21
IPv6
  • The next generation IP protocol.
  • IPv6 features:
    • supports many more addresses ( 3.4 x 1038)
    • quality of service (QoS) parameters for real-time audio and video
    • better data security
    • packets (messages) are smaller

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide22
DDoS
  • DDoS: a distributed denial-of-service attack
  • Many systems attack a single server
    • these systems may be zombies
  • The flood of messages forces the server to shut down
    • this stops real users from using the server

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

4 connecting to the internet
4. Connecting to the Internet
  • An Internet Service Provider (ISP) connects you to the Internet by providing you with a user account on a host computer that has access to the Internet.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

dial up connections
Dial-up Connections
  • Most people use a telephone line to access the Internet via an ISP.
    • can also use cable, cellular phone, or satellite dish
  • You need a computer, modem, and telephone line.

Internet

ISP

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

connection speeds
Connection Speeds
  • Connectionspeed is the maximum speed that your modem can communicate with the ISP’s modem
    • a modem with a connection speed of 14.4 Kbps is much slower than a cable modem with a connection speed of 1 MBps

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

5 the web
5. The Web
  • The Web is an Internet service that stores information in the form of Web pages.
  • A Web page is a mix of text, graphics, sound, animation, etc.
  • A Web page is stored in a text file on a computer linked to the Internet (and so to the Web).

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide28
Each Web page is referred to by a unique URL.
    • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is an Internet address of a Web page
    • begin with http://
      • e.g. http://fivedots.coe.psu.ac.th/~ad
      • http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/BUDDHISM/MAHAYANA.HTM
  • A Web page can be linked to another one by referring to its URL (address)

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide29
Related Web pages are grouped together at a Web site.
  • The top-level page of a Web site is sometimes called the home page.
  • A Web site is managed by a Web server.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

no of web sites
No. of Web Sites

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

6 web browsers
6. Web Browsers
  • A Web browser allows a user to access Web pages at different sites.
    • it uses HTTP to talk to the site's Web server
    • HTTP is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  • You get a Web page in a Web browser by typing in its URL, or clicking on a link that goes to the page.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

ms internet explorer
MS Internet Explorer
  • Comes with MS Windows
  • Slow
  • Easy to attack
  • Does not support all the Internet standards

http://fivedots.coe.psu.ac.th/~ad/

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

free shareware browsers
Free/Shareware Browsers
  • Firefox
    • PC World product of the year, 2005
    • http://www.mozilla.org/products/firefox/

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide34
Opera
    • available on many platforms
    • http://www.opera.com/

http://fivedots.coe.psu.ac.th/~ad/

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

7 web search engines
7. Web Search Engines
  • A Web Search engine is a Web site which allow you to search for things on the Web:
    • http://www.google.com
    • http://www.yahoo.com
  • Google offers many search engines:
    • web pages, images, mailing lists, news, maps, cheapest online goods, academic articles, and more
    • the best starting point for searching

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

google http www google co th
Google (http://www.google.co.th/)

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

8 web portals
8. Web Portals
  • A Webportal is a Web site that provides a starting point for finding popular Web services.
    • search engines
    • (free) e-mail accounts
    • chat rooms
    • links to shopping, weather, news, and sports

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide38
Popular Web portals include:
    • Yahoo! http://www.yahoo.com (best)
    • About.com http://www.about.com/
    • America Online http://www.aol.com/
    • MSN http://www.msn.com/

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

yahoo http www yahoo com
Yahoo (http://www.yahoo.com)

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

other types of portal
Other Types of Portal
  • Regional
    • portal versions focussing on specific geographical areas (e.g. Yahoo! UK)
  • Government
    • sources for government forms, information(e.g. http://first.gov in the USA)
  • Enterprise
    • used by large corporations, serving different groups
      • B2C (business-to-customer/consumer),B2B (business-to-business/supplier), etc

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

e commerce
E-Commerce
  • E-commerce refers to buying products and services using the Internet.
    • online shoppinge.g. Amazon books (http://www.amazon.com)
    • online auction sitese.g. eBay (http://www.ebay.com)

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide42
Individuals can set up their own e-commerce site.
  • Many Web hosting services and portal sites offer e-commerce enabling, which helps you build an online store.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

9 blogs and blogging
9. Blogs and Blogging
  • A blog (weblog, web diary) is a web page which contains periodic, dated posts/writings.
  • Blogs can be diaries, political campaigns, technical articles, gossip, etc.
  • Blogging is the process of writing a blog.
  • Blogs are part of the blogosphere.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

10 web page content
10. Web Page Content
  • Web pages can include multimedia elements such as sound, animation, and video.
  • Streamingmedia: the browser plays a media file while receiving it

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

browser plug ins
Browser Plug-ins
  • A plug-in is software that gives the browser the capability to view or play a specific type of file.
  • The Web browser maintains a list of the installed media plug-ins.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide46
A plug-in often starts a separate player or viewer to display the downloaded media.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

typical plug ins
Typical Plug-ins
  • Shockwave Flash
    • for executing animations
  • Windows Media Player
    • for executing video and audio
  • Java
    • for safely executing Java applets (small applications embedded in Web pages)

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

11 writing a web page
11. Writing a Web Page
  • A Web authoring tool makes it easy to create a Web page.
    • a word processor-style interface
    • wizards
    • predesigned templates, style sheets
  • Commercial Web authoring software includes Microsoft FrontPage and Macromedia Dreamweaver.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

ms frontpage
MS FrontPage
  • http://www.microsoft.com/frontpage/

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

coffeecup html editor
CoffeeCup HTML Editor
  • Most popular free tool
    • http://www.coffeecup.com/html-editor/

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

11 1 page design guidelines
11.1. Page Design Guidelines
  • Plan your Web sites and pages before you start:
    • what is their overall purpose?
  • Use a Web site/page template to make all the pages look consistent.
  • Proof read what you've written.
  • Test in several different browsers.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide52
Graphics:
    • do not use large graphics ( bigger than 400K)
    • use graphics with .jpg, .gif, or .png filename extensions
    • use thumbnails to link to larger version of large graphics

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide53
Good navigational rules:
    • can a user who drops into the middle of a site find their way to the home page?
  • Identify all your pages
    • contact name, site name, "last updated" dates
  • Respect the copyright and intellectual property rights of other Web sites.

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

12 other internet services
12. Other Internet Services
  • The Web is only one of the Internet’s many services.
  • The Internet also provides:
    • e-mail, file transfers, news, real-time chat, gaming, etc.

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide55
The Internet includes FTPservers which maintain files that you can transfer to your own computer.
  • Usenetservers for news
    • users read and post messages to newsgroups
    • over 10,000 different newsgroups
    • supported by a large number of servers, which store and forward messages with one another
    • accessable through most Web browsers

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide56
IRCservers handles real-time chatting:
    • IRC permits people from across the world to hold real-time conversations online, in a text-only form
    • IRC areas are divided into named channels, and any user can open his or her own channel
    • mIRC is a popular, free Windows client
      • http://www.mirc.co.uk/

continued

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide57
People can interact on the Internet by joining mailing lists or groups
    • e.g. http://groups.yahoo.com/
  • Multi-player gaming(MMOG) gives you an opportunity to play with others from all over the Internet

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

lineage mmog
Lineage MMOG

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet

slide59

http://mmogchart.com/

July 2005

000-209 Intro to CS. 8/Internet