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Wind Energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Wind Energy
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  1. Wind Energy Group 6: Jason Armstrong, Alejandra Salazar, William Becker, Silverio Sierra, Jessica Morgan

  2. How is Wind Generated? • Atmosphere warming by the sun • Hot air rises while cooler air falls • Result  WIND

  3. Energy FromWind • Kinetic Energy from air • Conversion into mechanical force or electricity • 59% max efficiency • Increasing current development

  4. How It Works? • Wind pressure turns a rotor • Rotor attached to shaft • Shaft connected to electrical generator • For residential systems, DC output stored in batteries • For large systems, synchronous inverters coverts DC into AC and feeds into the grid

  5. Amount Of Power Extracted • Proportional to the cube of the wind’s velocity and area swept by blades which is proportional to the blade diameter • The greater the wind velocity, the more impact on the rotor blades • The higher the support tower, the higher the wind velocity • Fewer blades are more efficient

  6. Types of Windmills

  7. Horizontal Common Three Categories: Dutch type American multivane 2 or 3 bladed turbine Vertical Egg-beater shape Darrieus rotor Types of Wind Turbines

  8. Dutch Windmill • 4 arms • Thousands used in Holland, but few used today • Used to pump water and grind flour • Small efficiency 7%

  9. American Multivane • Used to pump water • Dependable • Operates under small wind velocities • Low efficiency and output

  10. 2 or 3 Bladed Turbine • Primarily used today • Most efficient

  11. Vertical-Axis Machine • Darrieus rotor • No shift in wind directions • Gearbox and generator mounted at base • Difficult to put high up on a tower • Not popular

  12. Disadvantages: • High initial cost • Inconsistent energy source • Limited power • Expensive energy storage • Visual Pollution (noise, appearance) • Interference with television and radio waves • Potential threat to birds • Competition with other uses of land • Location of wind farms

  13. Advantages: • Clean energy source • Eliminates many pollution problems • Renewable resource • Lowest priced energy source • Benefits to rural economy • Small units which can be tailored to a specific location • Fine complement to solar energy

  14. Rural Economic Benefits • Iowa – 240 MW wind farm -$64,000/yr lease payments to farmers ($2,000/turbine) -$2 million in property taxes -40 long term jobs -200 short term construction jobs • Minnesota – 107 MW wind farm -$50,000/ yr lease payments to farmers -$61,000 in property taxes • -31 long term jobs

  15. Wind Energy in Costa Rica • Largest wind farm in Central and South America • Generates 3% of national electricity • Prevents 57,000 tons of CO2 • Ideal location for wind farms

  16. Economic Benefits in Costa Rica • Free fuel • Low maintenance cost • Initial costs covered by private donors • Creates new jobs, although few

  17. Problems With the Costa Rica Wind Farms • Not too beneficial to the locals • Little employment opportunities • Wages are not significantly higher

  18. US Wind Energy • Electric Utilities Companies and their role in “green power” programs • Top 5 Ranked states for wind energy potential: ND, TX, KS, SD, MT • Becoming more attractive as a source of energy

  19. The Lone Wind State • TX leading state in installed capacity of wind energy • Central and SW Services Inc. (6.6MW) • TXU Electric/York Research Corp. (34.3MW)

  20. International Leaders Denmark: • Leader in converting windpower • Owns 50% of worldwide wind power technology • Largest offshore wind farm • Expected to be 21% of overall energy Germany: • Largest number of installed turbines

  21. Why Wind? • Current concern for the environment • High energy prices • Fossil fuel insecurity • Renewable energy • Increased capacity needs • Complements with Solar Energy • Attractive alternative

  22. Any Questions?