Unit 3: Aggregate Demand and Supply and Fiscal Policy 3-3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Unit 3: Aggregate Demand and Supply and Fiscal Policy 3-3

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  1. Unit 3:Aggregate Demand and Supply and Fiscal Policy3-3 1

  2. Shifters of Aggregate Demand AD = C + I + G + X Change in Consumer Spending Change in Government Spending Change in Investment Spending Net EXport Spending Shifters of Aggregate Supply AS = I + R + A + P Change in Inflationary Expectations Change in Resource Prices Change in Actions of the Government Change in Productivity (Investment)

  3. Putting AD and AS together to getEquilibrium Price Level and Output

  4. Inflationary and Recessionary Gaps 4

  5. Example: Assume the government increases spending. What happens to PL and Output? LRAS Price Level AS PL and Q will Increase PL1 PLe AD1 AD QY Q1 GDPR 5

  6. Inflationary Gap Output is high and unemployment is less than NRU LRAS Price Level AS Actual GDP above potential GDP PL1 AD1 QY Q1 GDPR 6

  7. Example: Assume the price of oil increases drastically. What happens to PL and Output? LRAS Price Level AS1 AS PL1 Stagflation Stagnate Economy + Inflation PLe AD Q1 QY GDPR 7

  8. Recessionary Gap Output low and unemployment is more than NRU LRAS Price Level AS1 Actual GDP below potential GDP PL1 AD Q1 QY GDPR 8

  9. AD and AS Practice Worksheet 9

  10. How does this cartoon relate to Aggregate Demand? 10

  11. Draw AD and AS at full employment LRAS AS Price Level P2 P1 AD2 AD=C+I+G+X Qf (Y*or FE) Q2 GDPR Output Increases PL Increases 11

  12. Short Run and Long Run 12

  13. Shifts in AD or AS change the price level and output in the short run LRAS Price Level AS PLe AD QY GDPR 13

  14. Example: Assume consumers increase spending. What happens to PL and Output? LRAS Price Level AS PL1 PLe AD1 AD QY Q1 GDPR 14

  15. Now, what will happen in the LONG RUN? Inflation means workers seek higher wages and production costs increase LRAS Price Level AS1 AS PL2 Back to full employment with higher price level PL1 PLe AD1 AD QY Q1 GDPR 15

  16. Example: Consumer expectations fall and consumer spending plummets. What happens to PL and Output in the Short Run and Long Run? Price Level LRAS AS AS1 AS increases as workers accept lower wages and production costs fall PLe PL1 PL2 AD AD AD1 Q1 QY GDPR 16