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INTRODUCTION TO REFRACTION 12.1, 12.4, 12.5. Long wave vs. Short wave in a race. How a short wave keeps up with a long wave in a race. Deep. Shallow. But light isn’t water waves…and it still doesn’t explain how it bends. http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys04/crefractn/default.htm.

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slide5

Deep

Shallow

but light isn t water waves and it still doesn t explain how it bends
But light isn’t water waves…and it still doesn’t explain how it bends
  • http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys04/crefractn/default.htm
slide8

AIR: MED 1

INCIDENT RAY

NORMAL

REFRACTED RAY

PARTIALLY REFLECTED RAY

INCIDENT RAY

BOUNDARY

GLASS: MED 2

AIR: MED 2

GLASS: MED 1

NORMAL

BOUNDARY

REFRACTED RAY

conventions for refraction
CONVENTIONS FOR REFRACTION

INCIDENT RAY

MEDIUM 1

i

BOUNDARY

R

REFRACTED RAY

MEDIUM 2

what do you notice about the angles of refraction
WHAT DO YOU NOTICE ABOUT THE ANGLES OF REFRACTION?
  • Compare the incident and refracted angle in moving from:
  • Air to glass
  • Glass to air
  • Notice how:
  • θi > θr when moving from air to glass
  • θi < θr when moving from glass to air
effects of refraction
Effects of refraction
  • http://www.upscale.utoronto.ca/PVB/Harrison/Flash/Optics/Refraction/Refraction.html
index of refraction n
INDEX OF REFRACTION (n)
  • Ratio of the speed of light in a vacumn relative to the speed of light in a given media
  • Constant value calculated for various substances
  • n = c

v

Where:

c = speed of light in a vacumn

v = speed of light in a given medium

Notice that the slower light moves in a medium (decrease v) the greater the index of refraction will be

total internal reflection
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
  • Occurs when a light ray moves from a more optically dense medium (slow) to a less optically dense medium (fast)
  • Light bends away from normal
  • If index of refraction of fast medium is low, light leaving the medium will bend further away from the normal
  • If the light bends so much that it is “parallel” to the boundary of the medium, (ie. Θr = 90o), then the light ray is completely reflected back into the slow medium
critical angle
CRITICAL ANGLE

θC

  • The angle at which this occurs is known as the CRITICAL ANGLE
  • At this point, 100% of the light ray reflects instead of refracting
slide15

Did you know…that the “brilliant” cut for a diamond maximizes the total internal reflection of light to make the diamond “sparkle”? Diamond has a very high index of refraction: 2.4

index of refraction and critical angle
Index of refraction and critical angle
  • For optically dense substances in air (so light is travelling from the substance into air), as the index of refraction for a substance increases, the critical angle decreases
  • This ensure that more and more of the light rays that are trying to move from the slow to the fast medium will be greater than critical angle, so the it becomes harder for the light ray to refract out of the slow medium and into the fast
dispersion
DISPERSION
  • The colour of light is determined by the frequency of light
  • Different colours have different frequencies and wavelengths
  • White light is made up of a mixture of all frequencies of light
  • When white light hits a prism – causes the light to refract
  • Each colour of light does that differently since they all have different frequencies
slide19

Did you know…that rainbows are created after a rainfall due to dispersion? When light travels through the water droplets in the atmosphere they refract and disperse the white light to create a rainbow