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Take up. Paper 1. 1(a) What, according to Source E, was the significance of the Locarno Conference? [3 marks]. Countries bordering the Rhine would give up the use of force. The Rhineland would be demilitarized and the whole of the Rhineland would be evacuated by 1930.

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1 a what according to source e was the significance of the locarno conference 3 marks
1(a) What, according to Source E, was the significance of the Locarno Conference? [3 marks]
  • Countries bordering the Rhine would give up the use of force.
  • The Rhineland would be demilitarized and the whole of the Rhineland would be evacuated by 1930.
  • Germany would be admitted into the League of Nations.
  • European security would be ensured.
1 b what message is conveyed by source d 2 marks
1(b) What message is conveyed by Source D? [2 marks]
  • The leaders of France, Britain and Germany are standing on a draft of the Locarno Treaty
  • their handshake indicates that Germany has been welcomed back into the fold of Europe.
  • However, the expressions on the face of Britain and Germany, which indicate the serious nature of the agreement, contrast with the sly smile on the face of Briand who, with a boxing glove behind his back, is indicating that he hopes that France will be able to use force at a later date.
2 compare and contrast the views expressed about the locarno conference in sources b and c 6 marks
2. Compare and contrast the views expressed about the Locarno Conference in Sources B and C. [6 marks]
  • For comparison:
  • they both discuss the securing of a frontier or border
  • they both discuss the roles of Britain, Germany and France.
  • For contrast:
  • Source C mentions the roles of Italy and Belgium
  • Source B is very optimistic, whereas Source C is far more pessimistic
slide5
Source B sees Britain, Germany and France as cooperating together, whereas Source C maintains that Locarno will have the opposite effect
  • Source B mentions the effect of Locarno on countries outside of Europe, Source C does not
  • If only one source is discussed award a maximum of [2 marks]. If the two sources are discussed
  • separately award [3 marks] or with excellent linkage [4–5 marks]. For a maximum [6 marks]
  • expect a detailed running comparison/contrast.
slide6

3. With reference to their origin and purpose, discuss the value and limitations of Source A and Source C for historians studying the 1925 Locarno Conference. [6 marks]

  • Source A
  • Origin: A speech by Gustav Stresemann, the German Foreign Minister, on 16 October 1925.
  • Purpose: To explain to the world community the reasons why Germany has signed the Locarno Treaty.
  • Value: It’s recorded at the time it was made and shows the views of a representative of the German government, who signed the Locarno Treaty. This speech should be seen as being representative of the German government’s public position at this point in time.
slide7
Limitations: It is a speech, which is explaining why Germany wishes to be welcomed back into

the world community, but may merely be a justification to the world as to why Germany should be accepted back after its treatment in the Treaty of Versailles.

  • The speech can not necessarily be accepted at face value as there may be ulterior reasons behind the German government’s signing of the Locarno Treaty.
slide8
Source C
  • Origin: It is an extract from the Official History of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office published in 2006.
  • Purpose: To give an account of the reactions to the signing of the Locarno Treaty from the

British government’s point of view.

  • Value: It will have access to all the official papers and documents, which relate to the signing of the Locarno Treaty and is written with the benefit of hindsight. It will give the official British government’s view on Locarno.
slide9
Limitations: It is an official history and therefore may not be totally objective. It has been written in 2006 and is a compilation of other material, which means that a selection process has taken place, which may have omitted other details. It is not written by any single person, or there is no way of determining this.
slide10

4. Using these sources and your own knowledge, analyse the importance of the Locarno Conference for international relations between 1925 and 1936. [8 marks]

  • Source material that could be used:
  • Source A: Clearly indicates that Germany is willing to work together with other European nations and will do so in the future. It shows a change in government policy.
  • Source B: Indicates the viewpoint of someone supportive of the League of Nations who regards the signing of the Locarno Treaty as a major step forward to world peace through disarmament by all nations.
  • Source C: Warns that, despite the optimistic claims for Locarno of guaranteeing the Rhineland frontier through an agreement signed by Belgium, Italy, France, Germany and Britain, it sowed the seeds for later disagreements and split the alliance between Britain and France.
slide11
Source D: Clearly shows the intention, by France, not to abide by the Locarno Treaties in the future.
  • Source E: Shows how the Rhineland frontier was to be guaranteed and demilitarized, as a result of

which Germany would be admitted into the League of Nations. It also shows that Locarno was seen as the basis for the beginning of European security

slide12
Own knowledge that could be used:
  • Own knowledge could include the signing of the Kellog-Briand Treaty of 1928, and the effect that

the Treaty of Mutual Guarantee had on Europe through the “Locarno Honeymoon”. Mention could also be made of the effect of the rise to power of Hitler on Europe with regard to Versailles, The Great Depression, The failure of the League of Nations, the Geneva Disarmament Conference, the Four Power Pact, the Stresa Conference, Abyssinia, Eastern boundries

  • Mussolini’s support of Hitler, the invasion of the
  • Rhineland, the Spanish Civil War and the Rome-Berlin Axis.
slide13
Do not expect all the above and credit other relevant material. If only source material or only own knowledge is used, the maximum mark that can be obtained is [5 marks]. For a maximum
  • [8 marks], expect argument, synthesis of source material and own knowledge, as well as references

to the sources used.

paper 1 may 2010
Paper 1 May 2010
  • Abyssinian Crisis
slide15
1. (a)‏
  • What according to Source A, was the significance of Article 16 of the Covenant of the League of Nations?
slide16
Article 16 expresses the principal of collective security by stating that an act of war against a member state was to be interpreted as an act of war against all others
  • It stipulated the different sanctions which members resorting to war could face and the measures member states were to take against aggressors
  • It determined that the Council could request military contributions from member states to protect the covenants of the league
slide18
Mussolini is willing to go to war. This can be supported to the fact that he is following the road sign “ to war” or by comments about his strong appearance or decisive pace
  • Mussolini’s disregard for the Covenant of League of Nations is expressed in the words written on the document he is holding as well as the way he holds it
  • The Abyssinian Crisis has unleashed devastation and death. This can be supported by reference to the skulls under the sign “ to war” or the flames and smoke in the background
slide19
2. Compare and Contrast the views expressed in Sources B and D about British Policy during the Abyssinian Crisis
slide20
Compare
  • Both Sources refer to the fear that Italy might wage war against Britain
  • Both refer to the need to appeal to other League of Nations members to support Britain and France
  • Both depict Britain as the Nation most prepared to deal with the situation
slide21
Contrast
  • While source B depicts Britain as committed to the League of Nations, source D says Britain failed to lead
  • Source D refers to Britain's unwillingness to apply oil sanctions on Italy, Source B does not explicitly mention sanctions
  • The tone in source D is critical of the policy of Britain during the Crisis, source B mentions hope that the policy might be effective
slide22
OPVL
  • Source D and E, for historians studying the Abyssinian Crisis
slide23
Origin
  • Speech by Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Abyssinia, to the League of Nations June 1936

Purpose

To demand support of the League of Nations in the Abyssinian Crisis. To emphasize the fact that members of the League of Nations were not acting according to the Covenant. To explain that collective security was at stake.

slide24
Value
  • It is a speech given by Haile Selassie the Emperor of Abyssinia at the height of the conflict. Who was in a position to be aware of the tensions and the impact of the Leagues Policy

Limitations

  • The tone is emotional. The Speech aims at prodding the League of Nations into action to protect Abyssinia .
source d
Source D
  • Origin
  • Extract from a book written by a British soldier who was in Africa at the time of the crisis published in 2004
  • Purpose
  • To analyse the League of Nations policy on Abyssinia. To criticize British policy during the crisis
slide26
Value
  • The fact that the author lived and fought in Africa cold have given him an additional insight into the situation in the years prior to the war, when the Abyssinian Crisis developed. The date of the publication may suggest the opportunity to look at events in retrospect
slide27
Limitations
  • The author is very critical of British policy in Abyssinia and the tone of the extract may indicate a certain partiality. The book focuses on the history of Africa beyond the Abyssinia Crisis, so an abbreviated treatment of the events may be expected. Gold Coast ( Ghana) is on the other side of Africa to Abyssinia
slide28
4.
  • Using the sources and your own knowledge, assess the reasons why the League of Nations policy of collective security was difficult to apply in the Abyssinian Crisis
slide29
A
  • Article 16 shows that the League of Nations cold only make recommendations for military action to be used to protect the Covenant
  • B The source mentions a situation of gravity in Europe and identifies Mussolini as a “mad dog”, opposing him could bring war upon Europe. Except for Britain, other countries had made no preparations for war
slide30
D
  • The extract refers to British and French reluctance to break with Mussolini, as he was seen as a necessary ally against Hitler. As in B, the fear of war is provided as another reason. Also the fact that the League's sanctions against Itlay which did not include oil is put forward as an explanation as to why the League's policy did not succeed in protectng Abyssinia. The source explains that the League's polices were difficult to apply with the lack of support, despite the fact that other nations were not backward in imposing sanctions.
slide31
E
  • The speech refers to the fact the 3 powers considered their undertakings under the Covenant as of no Value. Article 16 and collective security seem to be of little meaning to member states
own knowlege
Own Knowlege
  • Stressa Front (1935)‏
  • Sanctions canceled in 1936
  • Hoare-Laval Pact – talks outside the League
  • France Britain did not want was- Great Depression