Seed Quality Ms. Thelma F. PadolinaSupervising Science Research SpecialistPlant Breeding and Biotechnology Division
The Importance of Seed “Basic factor of mankind’s most sought goal and Agricultural abundance”
The Importance of “Quality” in Seed It is the “watchword” of the farmers for a successful rice production • Genetic or varietal purity? • Mechanical purity? • Germination?
Key Check #1 Use certified seeds of a recommended variety The seed is certified by the NSQCS as evidenced by a tag attached to the sack. Foundation and registered seeds as well as lines coming from a reliable source (e.g. PhilRice, acrredited seed growers)
IRRI UPLB PhilRice Private Process of Varietal Release at the NCT Multi-location Tests (NCT) • Yield Trial • Insect Screening • Disease Screening • Grain Quality Evaluation Evaluates results of NCT, drop and accept new entries Rice Technical Working Group Technical Secretariat Recommends promising entries Approve release of new varieties National Seed Industry Council
Seed Certification A legally sanctioned system for quality control of seed multiplication and production which consists of field and bin inspection, pre and post control tests and seed quality tests (FAO, 1969, Delonche and Potts, 1971
The Importance of Certified Seed • Certified seed is pure, clean, full and uniform in size, and has a minimum germination rate of 85%. • Use of certified seeds leads to healthy seedlings that grow faster and uniformly, and resist pests better. • All this can contribute to a 5-10% increase in grain yield.
Mechanics of Seed Certification 1. National Seed Industry Council 2. Seed Multiplication Scheme 3. Farmer Cooperators 4. Seed Inspectors 5. Crops eligible for certification 6. Field Inspections 7. Field and Seed Standards 8. Seed Sampling 9. Quality Tests Conducted 10. Issuance of results of analysis and tags
Flow of Rice Seeds from PhilRice to Farmers Uniform Panicles (UP) Selected by plant breeders for SPHD for planting Breeder Seed (BS) Produced by SPHD, certified by SQCS for PRRI branch stations,NRRDN and SeedNet Produced from BS by PRRI branch stations, NRRDN and SeedNet for SeedNet and selected seed producers Foundation Seed (FS) Registered Seed (RS) Produced from FS by SeedNet and selected seed growers for all accredited seed growers Certified Seed (CS) Produced from RS by all accredited seed growers for farmers
Factor Breeder Foundation Registered Certified Pure seed (%) 99 98 98 98 Other varieties (grains/500g) 0 2 5 20 Weed & other crop seed (%) 0 0 0.05 0.1 Inert matter (%) 1 2 2 2 Red rice (grains/500 g) 0 0 1 2 Germination (% minimum) 85 85 85 85 14 Moisture content (%) 14 14 14 Table 2. Official Laboratory Standards for Seed Certification in Philippines
Breeder Seed Foundation Seed Registered Seed Certified Seed Classes of Seed comes directly from plant breeder grown from breeder seed grown from foundation seed grown from either foundation, registered or certified seed seed that may be produced from varieties not yet approved by NSIC Good Seed
Choose a variety with high yield potential and market demand, and tested in technology demonstrations or adaptability trials Management
Choosing a Variety Top 10 preferred varieties(2001-2002, RBFHS) 1st Crop • PSB Rc18 • IR64 • PSB Rc10 • PSB Rc28 • IR74 • PSB Rc14 • Masipag • IR18 • IR36 • PSB Rc34 2nd Crop • PSB Rc18 • IR64 • PSB Rc82 • PSB Rc14 • Masipag • IR74 • PSB Rc10 • PSB Rc28 • IR82 • PSB Rc4
Other Classifications (based on grain quality) • Intermediate AC intermediate/high GT (IR64 type) • PSB Rc 1, PSB Rc 3, PSB Rc 4, PSB Rc 14, PSB Rc18, PSB Rc 20, PSB Rc 22, PSB Rc 24,PSB Rc 28, PSB Rc 30, PSB Rc 32, PSB Rc 52,PSB Rc 54, PSB Rc 58, PSB Rc 62 and PSB Rc 64. • Intermediate AC low GT (PSB Rc34 type) • PSB Rc 5, PSB Rc 12, PSB Rc 34, PSB Rc 50,PSB Rc 70, and PSB Rc 72H
Other Classifications (based on grain quality) • High AC intermediate GT (PSB Rc10 type) • PSB Rc 2, PSB Rc 10, PSB Rc 16, PSB Rc 36, PSB Rc 38, PSB Rc 40, PSB Rc 42, PSB Rc 44, PSB Rc 56, PSB Rc 66 and PSB Rc 68 • High AC low GT (IR42/IR60 type) • PSB Rc 6, PSB Rc 8, PSB Rc 26H,PSB Rc 46, PSB Rc 48, and PSB Rc 60.
New Variety, 2005 NSIC Rc134(Tubigan 4) • average yield >5t/ha • transplanted or direct-seeded • early maturing (100-108 d) • good eating quality
NSIC Rc138 ( Tubigan 5) NSIC Rc136H ( Mestiso 7) NSIC Rc142 ( Tubigan 7) NSIC Rc140 ( Tubigan 6) New Varieties , 2006
NSIC Rc146 or “PJ7” NSIC Rc144 or Tubigan 8 New Varieties
ON A SEED This was the goal of the leaf and the root, For this did the blossom burn its hour, This little grain is the ultimate fruit, This is the awesome vessel of power For this is the source of the root and bud… World unto world unto world remolded This is the seed, compact of God, Wherein all mystery is enfolded. - George Starbuck Galbraith
Use certified seeds Use certified seeds Use certified seeds