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Phrases and Clauses What do we already know?. Phrases . Clauses . Group of related words Can act as a single part of speech, like an adverb or an adjective Begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun Will not contain a verb. Group of related words

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Phrases and Clauses What do we already know?


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    1. Phrases and ClausesWhat do we already know? Phrases Clauses Group of related words Can act as a single part of speech, like an adverb or an adjective Begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun Will not contain a verb Group of related words Can be a main clause or a dependent clause Can act as an adverb or an adjective Begins with a relative pronoun or a subordinate conjunction Must contain a subject and a verb

    2. Examples Phrases Clauses Near the street by the curb According to Jim Beside the stream under the maple tree In spite of himself Which never seems real Who likes her as much as I do Whoever goes As long as she doesn’t tell

    3. Types of Clauses Adjective Adverb • Dependent clause that modifies a noun or pronoun • Clarify the noun by answering questions about “which?” or “what type of?” • Typically follows the noun or pronoun and can’t be moved around without creating a sentence that is ungrammatical in structure • The guitar which Elvis used to own was found at a garage sale. (correct) • Which Elvis used to own was the guitar found at the garage sale. (incorrect) • Often begins with a relative pronoun (that, which, who, whom, whoever, whomever, whichever) • Also called a relative clause • Dependent clause that modifies a verb • Answers questions that relate to time, location, purpose, and condition (Why? When? Where? To what degree? Or Under what condition?) • Begins with a subordinate conjunction (after, although, as, because, since, so that, unless, until, when, whenever, where, where as, wherever, whether, while…) • Adverb Clauses are Movable – Adverb clauses that come at the beginning of the sentence are followed by a comma, but adverb clauses that are at the end of a sentence do not have to be preceded by a comma. • The hostess wouldn’t seat us because our entire party had not arrived. • Because our entire party had not arrived, the hostess wouldn’t seat us.

    4. What type of clause is the dependent clause in the sentence below. The seeds will take root wherever there is enough light.

    5. Adverb clause The seeds will take root wherever there is enough light.

    6. Adverb or Adjective Clause According to Richard Neeley from my neighborhood, Mr. Hexis, who is also my neighbor, will not attend the block party next weekend.

    7. adjective According to Richard Neeley from my neighborhood, Mr. Hexis, who is also my neighbor, will not attend the block party next weekend.

    8. Adjective or adverb clause Although you have not eaten your sub sandwich, you may still have cake dessert.

    9. adverb Although you have not eaten your sub sandwich, you may still have cake dessert.

    10. Adjective or adverb clause Before you open your birthday presents, take a picture of the beautifully wrapped packages.

    11. adverb Before you open your birthday presents, take a picture of the beautifully wrapped packages.

    12. Adjective or adverb clause Casey, who spent the night with her grandmother, was absent from school today.

    13. adjective Casey, who spent the night with her grandmother, was absent from school today.

    14. Adjective or adverb clause The delicious dinner that Dad prepared last night contained all of my favorites – macaroni and cheese, greens, and fried chicken.

    15. Adjective or adverb clause The delicious dinner that Dad prepared last night contained all of my favorites – macaroni and cheese, greens, and fried chicken.

    16. Adjective or adverb clause Whether you like it or not, there will be a clause and phrase test tomorrow.

    17. Adjective or adverb Whether you like it or not, there will be a clause and phrase test tomorrow.

    18. How do I find dependent versus independent clauses? ( parenthesis around prep phrases) Underline all verbs and verb phrases twice (I underlined and italicized on this power point since I could not underline a word twice) Find the subject for each verb and underline it once Box {I bracketed on this power point} each clause, including any prep phrases that are within that clause. Determine if each boxed clause can stand alone as a sentence. If it can, it is independent; if it can’t, it is dependent. Determine the questions that the dependent clause is answering and then label it either adverb or adjective. Check for compound sentence signals (comma and FANBOYS) (Remember that next year, we will add noun clauses to your labeling ) DO THIS FOR ALL SENTENCES…IT WILL HELP YOU!

    19. Simple, Compound, Complex, or Compound-Complex? Neither sentence makes grammatical sense when the adjective clause is removed.

    20. Complex {Neither sentencemakes grammatical sense }{when the adjective clauseis removed.}

    21. S, C, CX, C/CX Adjective clauses are dependent clauses that modify nouns or pronouns, and adverb are dependent clauses that modify verbs.

    22. C-CX {Adjective clausesare dependent clauses} {thatmodify nouns or pronouns}, and {adverbare dependent clauses}{thatmodify verbs.}

    23. Sentence Type? We drove along the coastline and enjoyed the beautiful scenery.

    24. Simple sentence with a compound predicate {Wedrove(along the coastline) and enjoyed the beautiful scenery.}