Copy each statement on the top half of NB p. 31, then re-write it on the bottom half to make it true by changing the underlined phrase. DON’T SKIP LINES! 1. In 1779, Americans were receiving help from their allies Germany and Russia.2. The victories of Bernardo de Gálvez prevented the British from attacking the United States from the northeast.3. Baron de Kalb was nicknamed “the soldier’s friend.”4. The German officer Baron Rothschild trained Washington’s army at Valley Forge.5. Valley Forge is remembered for its wet, rainy spring.6. George Rogers Clark raised an army and captured Fort Pitt in Indiana.7. A privately owned ship that has permission to attack enemy merchant vessels is called a mercenary.8. Richard Bonhomme was an American naval officer who declared “I have not yet begun to fight!”
On the top half of NB p. 30, explain how each of these men helped to win American independence. • Marquis de Lafayette – • Baron von Steuben – • George Rogers Clark – • John Paul Jones – • Bernardo de Galvez – • Baron de Kalb – • Benjamin Franklin – (Allow two lines per man)
Lesson 7.2: The War Expands Today we will identify several key men who helped fight for American independence.
Vocabulary • identify – give details about a person that set them apart from other people • ally – a country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal • desert – to leave military duty without planning to return • privateer – a privately-owned ship that a government gives permission to attack enemy merchant ships
Check for Understanding • What are going to do today? • How would you identify your parent to someone who doesn’t know them? • Why would the United States need an ally against Britain to win independence? • What do most people think of a soldier who deserts? • Why would the United States need to use privateers against the British navy?
What We Already Know France had been forced to abandon its lands in North America after its defeat by Britain in the French and Indian War.
What We Already Know One of Britain’s great advantages at the beginning of the Revolutionary War was its large and powerful navy.
What We Already Know From the beginning, Washington’s army was poorly trained and lacked adequate supplies.
Help from Abroad • In the fall of 1776, Congress sent Benjamin Franklin to Paris. • His job was to ask France to become an ally of the United States.
Help from Abroad France was bitter over losing the French and Indian War and wanted revenge against Britain, so they decided to help the American colonies gain their freedom.
Help from Abroad When news of the victory at Saratoga reached France, its king recognized U.S. independence and France agreed to become America’s ally.
Help from Abroad • France sent funds, supplies, and troops to America. • In 1779, France persuaded its ally, Spain, to help the Americans, too.
Help from Abroad Over the next two years, Louisiana’s Spanish governor Bernardo de Galvez captured British forts in the Mississippi Valley, at Mobile in Alabama, and at Pensacola in West Florida.
Help from Abroad • By entering the war, France and Spain forced the British to fight several enemies on land and sea. • The British had to station troops in many places. • For their help, Spain would gain new land for its empire in North America.
How did Louisiana’s Spanish governor Bernardo de Gálvez help America during the Revolution? • He captured British strongholds in the lower Mississippi Valley. • He captured the Serapis, showing that the British navy could be beaten. • He sent a small army to take Mobile in Alabama and Pensacola in West Florida. • He prevented the British from attacking the United States from the southwest. • He used his own money to buy warm clothing for Washington’s ragged troops.
How did Benjamin Franklin help America win the Revolution? • By persuading France to be America’s ally • By leading a Continental regiment into battle at Saratoga • By training Continental troops • By using his own money to buy warm clothing for Washington’s ragged troops
6. Why did France agree to become America’s ally during the Revolutionary War? • The Americans had aided the French during the French Revolution. • France wanted revenge after losing the French and Indian War to the British. • France hoped the Americans would later help them to defeat the Spanish. • Congress promised to restore the Louisiana Purchase to France.
Europeans Help Washington • Several army officers from Europe helped America. • The Marquis de Lafayette was a French nobleman who served in Washington’s army.
Europeans Help Washington • He commanded an army division and fought many battles. • His men loved him because he shared their hardships and bought them warm clothes. • He also persuaded the French king to send French troops to help the United States.
Europeans Help Washington The Germans Baron Johann de Kalb and Baron Friedrich von Steuben also helped the American army.
Europeans Help Washington • He became one of Washington’s generals and earned a reputation for bravery. • In 1780, he received 11 wounds in the Battle of Camden and died.
Europeans Help Washington Von Steuben taught American soldiers how to march and to use military weapons such as the bayonet.
7. How did European officers aid America in the Revolutionary War? • By arranging treaties with Britain’s enemies Russia and Germany • By training Continental troops • By leading troops into battle • By helping the Americans get more foreign aid • By spying on the British while serving in their army
Winter at Valley Forge • In late 1777, Britain’s General Howe forced Washington’s army to retreat from Philadelphia. • That winter, Washington and his army camped at Valley Forge in eastern Pennsylvania.
Winter at Valley Forge • They were short on supplies and shelter, so many soldiers suffered or even died from malnutrition, exposure to the cold, and diseases. • Because of that, Valley Forge today symbolizes the great hardships the Americans lived through during the war.
Winter at Valley Forge • In spite of the hard times, Washington and his soldiers did not quit. • Some soldiers did desert, but most of the army stayed together because they loved their country and General Washington.
8. What did Valley Forge come to stand for? • The outstanding military leadership American officers provided during the war • The creativity and ingenuity American manufacturers displayed to provide necessary military supplies • The great hardships the Americans lived through during the war • The unwillingness of British officers to use their many advantages to defeat American forces
War on the Frontier • In 1777, 24-year-old George Rogers Clark wanted to defend the Western frontier from the British. • He raised an army, and he and his men captured British posts in the West.
War on the Frontier • They captured Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River without a fight. • Next they targeted Fort Sackville at Vincennes in present-day Indiana.
War on the Frontier Clark’s men slogged through miles of icy swamps and waded through chest-deep water to catch the British at Fort Sackville by surprise.
War on the Frontier Clark and his men had captured several Native American allies of the British and executed some of them in plain view of the fort.
War on the Frontier When he promised to do the same to the British if they didn’t surrender immediately, the British gave up.
War on the Frontier Clark’s victories gave Americans a hold on a region that stretched between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River.
How did George Rogers Clark defend the Western frontier? • By raising an army and leading his men in the capture of several important British posts • By giving Americans a hold on a large region that stretched between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River • By building a massive fortress on the Ohio River that later became the city of Cincinnati • By breaking through the British blockade on the Ohio River
War at Sea • By 1777, Britain had about 100 warships off the American coast to control the Atlantic trade routes. • But American privateers attacked British merchant ships, capturing them, selling their cargo, and dividing the profits among the crew.
War at Sea • Motivated by both profit and patriotism, the privateers captured hundreds of British merchant ships. • This disrupted trade, causing British merchants to call for the war to end.
A Naval Hero • Although the British had more ships than the United States, the Continental Navy scored many victories against Britain. • John Paul Jones was a U.S. officer commanding the Bonhomme Richard, patrolling the English coast.
A Naval Hero • In September, Jones’s vessels approached a convoy in which two British warships were guarding a number of supply ships. • He attacked the Serapis, a British warship that was larger and better armed than the Bonhomme Richard.
A Naval Hero • The two warships were so close together that the muzzles of their guns almost touched. • They blasted away, each seriously damaging the other.
A Naval Hero • As the two ships battered each other, the confident British captain demanded that Jones surrender. • Defiantly, Jones replied, “I have not yet begun to fight!”
A Naval Hero • Crowds of British civilians gathered on the shore to watch them fighting through the night. • Although the captain of the Serapis finally surrendered, the Bonhomme Richard was so full of holes that it eventually sank.
A Naval Hero • Jones and his crew had to sail away in the captured Serapis. • Jones’s success against the best navy in the world angered the British, but it inspired Americans.
How did privateers help the Americans in the Revolutionary War? • By persuading leading members of the British Parliament that the colonies should be independent • By raising private donations from Americans to support the war effort • By capturing hundreds of British merchant ships and forcing British merchants to call for the war to end • By serving as mercenary officers in the Continental Army
9. What was John Paul Jones’s major contribution during the war? • His pamphlets, such as Why We Fight, which inspired many Americans to keep struggling against the British. • His capture of the Serapis, which showed that the British navy could be beaten. • His ability as a diplomat to persuade France and Spain to support the American cause. • His willingness to use his own money to buy warm clothing for ragged colonial troops.