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Integrated Reading and Writing

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  1. Integrated Reading and Writing D. J. Henry Speaking About English Pearson Webinar April 4, 2014

  2. Reading and Writing • May be integrated as a communication cycle, but are not simultaneous: Reader comprehends and responds to writer Writer sends information Reader receives information

  3. Inferring and Implying Meaning as Readers and Writers

  4. Inferring and Implying Ideas

  5. Shared Cognitive Behaviors of Readers and Writers • Occur in phases: Before, During, and After • Questioning • Predicting/Inferring • Clarifying • Making Connections • Re-reading/Revising • Visualizing • Summarizing

  6. Integrated Reading/Writing Builds on Our Existing Sound Pedagogies • Reading to Learn: Build and Expand Prior Knowledge • Ideas • Language • Structure • Connections among Text, World, Other Texts, and Self • Writing to Learn: Deepen and Share Knowledge • Ideas • Model Language and Structure • Connections among text, world, other texts, and self • Self-Assess (Metacognition) • Prove Mastery • Reader Response: Writing in Response to Reading

  7. Integrated Reading and Writing to Learn • Reading/Writing Journals • Fostering Metacognition • What do I already know (prior knowledge)? • What do I need to know? • What confuses me? • What have I learned? • Think-aloud (Verbal and Written) • Description of the mental process one goes through to make meaning — “eavesdropping on someone’s thinking” • Strategy for monitoring and repairing comprehension

  8. Think-Alouds Foster Reading Comprehension Screenshot Source: Wilhelm, Jeffery D. “Navigating Meaning: Using Think-Alouds to Help Readers Monitor Comprehension.” National Writing Project. March 2003. 1 April 2014. <>.

  9. Think-Aloud Prompts: Reading Comprehension • Predictions • “I’m guessing that ___ will happen next.” “I bet that....” “I wonder if...” “I think this piece will be about…” “I imagine the author believes...” “I think the tone of this piece will be...” • Personal Connections • “This is like...” “This reminds me of ...” “This could help me with...” “This is helping me with/to think about/to make plans for...” • Text Connections • “This agrees/disagrees with…” “What have I read that supports this idea?” What have I read that offers an opposing view?” • Visualize • “In my mind’s eye,…” “I imagine…” “I see...” or “I have a picture of…” • Clarify (Monitor Comprehension) • “This is (not) making sense because...” “This is (not) what I expected because...” “This connects (or doesn’t) to what I already read/already know because...” • Address/Repair Confusion • “Maybe I’d better...” “Something I could do is...” “Since I don’t understand this word, a good strategy would be to....” “First I saw, but now I see....” “What I thought this was about no longer makes sense because...” “I need to revise my thinking by...” “Maybe I need to consider...” Source: “Prompts that Guide Students to Use General Reading Strategies.” Scholastic. 3 April 2014. <>.

  10. Write-Aloud Prompts • Question • “Who is my audience?” “I am thinking about writing a _______ about ________ because...” • Predict/Infer • My audience needs to know…” “The best way to organize details may be…” “The most appropriate tone to use is…” • Clarify • “To brainstorm ideas, I...” “Which words best reveal my meaning?” • Visualize • “I used a _____ concept map because…” “Which similes or metaphors would help me make my point?” • Summarize • “What is my main idea or central point?” • Making Connections • “How does this information relate to the world?” “Why should this audience know about this information?” What have I read that supports this information?” “What might be some reasonable opposing views to my ideas? • Other Possible Prompts • “I chose the title ______ because...”“I decided to begin my piece with _______ because...”“My tone is _____ because...” • “I revised ________ because....” • How did my brainstorming help generate details? • How did my brainstorming help me organize ideas? • When during the writing process did I provide transitions?

  11. Think-Alouds Foster Writing: Write Alouds Screenshot Source: “Strategy Guide: Write Alouds.” IRA/NCTE. 1 April 2014. <>.

  12. Integrated Reading/Writing: Reader Response • Summary: Connects • Text to Author • Usually Formal and Third Person • Personal Response: Connects • Text to Me • Usually Informal and First Person • Critical Response: Connects • Text to World • Text to Other Texts • Usually Formal and Third Person

  13. Strategy for Writing a Summary 1. Delete Unnecessary material Repetitive material 2. Condense A word to replace a list A word to replace individual parts of an action 3. State Topic sentence OR 4. Create Topic sentence if not stated

  14. Strategy for Writing a Summary

  15. Predictions and Evidence:Questions and Answers A Reader’s Prediction Questions A Writer’s Prediction Questions What is the writer’s main point? What is the writer’s purpose? Who is the writer’s intended audience? What is the significance of this information? What supports will the writer provide? How will the writer organize the ideas? Who needs to know this information? What is my purpose for writing? Why is this information significant? What is the main point I want to make? What details will best support my idea and interest my audience? How should I organize my ideas?

  16. Predictions and Evidence:Questions and Answers

  17. Reading-Writing Activities: The Big Picture Dear Editor Cover Letter Reading-Writing Holistic Rubric Reading-Writing Individual Study Plan A Reading-Writing Strategy: Self-Assessment

  18. Reading-Writing: Teaching Approaches Reciprocal Teaching Steps Reciprocal Teaching-Learning Log Strategy for Writing a Summary Think-Pair-Share Think-Aloud Prompts for Readers and Writers

  19. Reading-Writing Strategies Cornell Two-Column Notes Concept Word Map KWL Notes Predictions and Evidence: Questions and Answers Reading-Writing Cause/Effect Concept Map Reading-Writing Comparison/Contrast Concept Map Review-Revise Feedback Log

  20. The Most Vital Element You, the classroom teacher! Enthusiasm Compassion Expectations Engagement Intellectual Models

  21. Resources