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The Prospect of Zero GHG Emission Cars Prof. David R. Hodas Widener University School of Law Wilmington DE Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation Symposium: LIVING ON A FINITE EARTH: Energy Law and Policy for a New Era October 10, 2008 School of Law University of Oregon

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the prospect of zero ghg emission cars

The Prospect of Zero GHG Emission Cars

Prof. David R. Hodas

Widener University School of Law

Wilmington DE

Journal of EnvironmentalLaw and Litigation

Symposium: LIVING ON A FINITE EARTH: Energy Law and Policy for a New Era

October 10, 2008

School of Law

University of Oregon

Vehicle weight vs.. acceleration
  • As engines become more efficient they have been used to increase acceleration and weight not increase fuel efficiency
Transportation uses 70% of U.S. oil consumption
  • Last week (Oct 3) the U.S. imported (net of exports)12.9 million barrels of petroleum per day (gross imports were14 million)(this translates into > 4.7 billion bbls per year)
  • @$100/bll U.S the cost of these imports is about $1.29 billion per day or $470 billion per year.
  • U.S. consumes about 43% of the world’s gasoline (2003 data)

In 2006 transportation in the U.S. cars account for 1.99 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions

    • Petroleum: 1.952 billion (gasoline’s share is 1.19 billion mt)
    • Electricity for transportation: 5.2
    • Natural gas: 32.5
  • U.S. electricity production from fossil fuels accounts for 2.344 billion tons of CO2 per year.
  • Together (3.534 billion mt), U.S. gasoline use and electricity generation comprise about 60% of U.S. CO2 emissions or just under 14% of global CO2 emissions
Can we reduce CO2 from both electricity and transportation?
  • Only if we can shift to renewable sources of electricity
  • Renewable Electricity challenge: how to store it for use when needed?
  • Can Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) cars help meet the challenge?
plug in vehicles
Plug-in Vehicles

V2G Slides provided by Prof. Willett Kempton,

University of Delaware

vehicle to grid
Vehicle to Grid

Arrows indicate direction of power flow

v2g basic math
V2G Basic Math
  • Average car driven 1 hour/day, thus, time parked is 23 hours/day; Daily average travel: 32 miles, storage for 100 - 250 miles
  • Practical power draw from car: 10 - 20 kW
  • US power: generation=978 GW; load=436 GW avg (EIA)
  • US 241 million cars (FHWA 2005) x 15 kW = 3,615 GW, thus...
  • Power of fleet is >3x generation; >8x load !
electric markets
Electric Markets
  • Initial markets (high value, low impact on battery, no system changes):
    • Regulation (“Frequency regulation”)
    • Spinning reserves
    • Intrahour adjustment
  • Larger but more challenging markets
    • Peak power
    • UPS for the distribution system

Daily Load versus Regulation (=correction of ACE)

ACE, Area Control Error, ~0.5% of control area load

Grid operators send frequent signals to on-line generators (equipped with AGC) to either increase or decrease output.


Aggregate Daily Load Curve

Time of Day

from Letendre et al 2006

basic per vehicle values
Basic per Vehicle Values

10 –Year Present Value V2G Revenue Potential

Assumptions: 80% availability, Reg. $40/MW-h, Spin. $10/MW-h, 7% discount rate, example calculations

vehicle monitoring
Vehicle Monitoring
  • Automated data collection while grid-connected and while driving
  • Power from grid to vehicle (-kW) and from vehicle to grid (+kW)
  • AGC regulation signal from PJM (+-kW)
  • State of charge (%)
  • Wind backup: wind output vs. modelled vehicle fleet charge/discharge
ev phev design tradeoffs
EV/PHEV Design Tradeoffs
  • Batteries expensive; motor expensive
  • High line-current gives fast charge, roadside recharge; adds only moderate cost if done right
  • Regulation income directly proportional to line power!
  • Line power limits:
    • Size of plug, circuit, service
    • Energy/time = kWh/dispatch
how many cars for an a s contract
How many cars for an A/S contract?
  • PJM minimum A/S contract: 1 MW
  • CalISO minimum A/S contract: 1 MW
  • Assume 2/3 availability (1/3 unavailable because driving, battery at wrong SOC, etc
  • Calculation: 2/3 availability means ... ___ kW/car * ___ cars * 2/3 = ___ MW
    • for 1 MW at 15 kW, need 100 cars
    • for 1 MW at 1.5 kW, need 1000 cars
  • One-half vehicle fleet is electric drive (BEV + PHEV). National security & environment benefits.
  • Lots of storage on the electric system, near loads.
  • Electric system storage is dispatchable by ISO/TSO and/or load serving entity.
  • Electric grid is more stable and reliable, A/S is abundant and less expensive
  • Intermittent renewables can be a much higher fraction of the generation mix.
legal and policy questions
Legal and Policy Questions
  • How shift investment strategy in a deregulated electric system to renewable electricity linked to V2G
  • Infrastructure: parking lots, transmission capacity, distribution networks
  • Federal or state regulation? Link to climate change incentives, caps
  • Smart meter laws, aggregation design
  • Contract and business plan design, taxation, ownership, utility integration
  • Other potential issues?
mid atlantic grid interactive car consortium
Mid-Atlantic Grid-Interactive Car Consortium
  • Partners
    • University of Delaware
    • PHI: Delmarva Power, Atlantic Electric, PEPCO, etc
    • ACUA
    • PJM
    • AC Propulsion
    • Comverge
  • Observers
    • Tesla Motors
    • State of Delaware (DEDO, PSC, Energy Office)
    • anon