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  1. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Lower the barrier for users to remix the output of services. Theo van Veen, ELAG 2006, April 26

  2. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Overview • Goals • Trends in information retrieval • How do we enhance integration • Explanation of the concept of service integration • Demonstration of one solution (Ajax) • What data and service providers can do • Remaining issues

  3. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Goals • Improve sharing of information and services • Bring enriched information within reach of a mouse click • Lower implementation barriers to create new functionality by combining existing services • Enhance personalization: user chooses which services to integrate

  4. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Some trends in information retrieval • Web 2.0: Let users (re)mix information and services from others and themselves in their own way • Ajax (Asynchronous, Javascript and XML): Simultaneous requests can be sent from a web page to multiple targets. Results are retrieved asynchronously without freezing the screen and are dynamically transformed (and mixed) to new web pages.

  5. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 How to enhance integration By: • standardisation of access to services • publishingstandard service descriptions • creating services registries But also by: • describing the non-standard world as it is • to make use of what is available now • to facilitate the standardisation process • combining (the best of) different native standards to evolve into new ones • describing relations between services and the metadata that might trigger those services !

  6. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Extrapolation of OpenURL concept • OpenURL: • Vendor specific knowledge base how to access services • User is linked to OpenURL resolver providing links • Links to services are controlled by user’s institution • Towards (expected): • Service providers publish all their services • User selects preferred services stored in a personal knowledge base • User controlled criteria for invoking the service • Direct linking to service, automatic or on user request, based on user’s preferences, skipping the OpenURL resolver

  7. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 The components of a new concept • Any web page, for example showing results of a search • The services: any application that can be invoked by an URL • The user agent, which can be: • A browser extension (Firefox) • A portal running in the browser (Ajax) • A server side application that intercepts user requests and service responses • An OpenURL link resolver • A knowledge base containing information on services, how to access those services, which metadata should trigger a link and the user preferences with respect to handling services

  8. 5. Request with output from service A as input Knowledge Base 2. Interpretation of response from service A 1. Request and response 3. Lookup metadata and services User agent The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Schematic illustration of the concept Output from service A Output from service A gets link to service B Description of service B Service B 4. Modify presentation and add links e.g. to service B Service A

  9. Search images of this person in Google The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Demonstration of concept: add image search for creator field <h3>HTML:<p/> This html pages demonstrates how the field "<creator>Shakespeare</creator>" can be processed by a user agent. </h3><br />

  10. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 COinS (Context Object in Spans) • HTML tag <span> to be recognized as OpenURL metadata object. Example: <span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&amp;rft.issn=1045-4438"></span> • Usage: mainly OpenURL resolution in combination with browser extension (bookmarklet, greasemonkey) that can change the behavior of the <span> • Benefits: works in most browsers because it makes use of standard HTML tags and attributes • Disadvantage: assumes OpenURL aware services

  11. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Normal response form Google Scholar

  12. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 OpenURL link added by user agent to Google Scholar response

  13. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 (semi-)automatic invocation of a SRU search

  14. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 When found the link is changed

  15. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Activation of another link

  16. Response of the user’s OpenURL server when clicking the link The KB on its way to Web 2.0 When it is NOT found the link remains an OpenURL link

  17. SOAP http GET http POST XML knowledge base XSL user agent The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Ajax: Asynchronous, Javascript and XML Native protocol gateway SRU SRU XSL and Javascript For Z39.50 not under our control ... … a central gateway will be provided Add your own functionality and collection descriptions User query is sent via SRU to all targets ... Integration is in your browser! Transform XML collection descriptions using XSL Use XSL and Javascript to create a search page Z39.50 targets will use a Z39.50-SRU gateway TEL XML collection descriptions (SRU)

  18. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 The knowledge database Combination of: • Machine readable descriptions of service behavior and how to access services: • URL • URL syntax • Request parameters • Fixed parameters • User interaction • Access mechanism (POST, GET, SOAP) • Services in relation to metadata elements • Which metadata field triggers which services? • How does it trigger the service? Demo of Ajax portal

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  26. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 With a little bit of imagination (work to be done) • Services can be triggered by more complex criteria rather than the presence of a single metadata field in a structured metadata record • Services can be activated in the background and only appear when there is something to show rather than bothering the user in advance • Services can trigger other services, for example from location to coordinates to display on a map • Web pages can be analyzed (semi-automatically) to discover potential services and generate new service descriptions to be added to the service descriptions (like favorites) • By formalization of service descriptions users or user agents may exchange “working” service descriptions

  27. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 What can data/service providers do? • Provide machine readable output (XML) • Semantic tagging of HTML pages to recognize metadata in web pages (e.g. COinS, unAPI) • Prevent the need for complex interpretation of output, be tolerant with respect to input to make it easy to use output from services and to generate input into services • Use existing standards or create new ones analogue to existing ones (e.g. SRU) • Provide service descriptions for any service that is usable in this context at a standard location e.g.: http://your.host/services.xmland searchable by Google • Create registries with generic service descriptions

  28. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Issues • Are providers willing to provide machine readable data without branding? • Even with semantic tagging there is a possibility that user agents will hide branding information • Still much variation in the encoding of metadata • Security issue with mixing and merging services from different domains in the browser • Providers may not be aware that they are offering services that are useful for integration • Providers and institutions may not yet be ready for Web 2.0 (protection of their data)

  29. The KB on its way to Web 2.0 Thanks Email: theo.vanveen@kb.nl