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Tourism Facilities Management. André Kretzschmar University of Applied Sciences Stralsund Leisure and Tourism Management WS 2008/2009. Basics. Attractions. Play a vital part in encouraging visitors to a region; Without attractions there would be a limited need for other tourism services;

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tourism facilities management

Tourism Facilities Management

André Kretzschmar

University of Applied Sciences Stralsund

Leisure and Tourism Management

WS 2008/2009


Play a vital part inencouraging visitors to a region;

Without attractions there would bea limited need for other tourism services;

Some argue that tourism would not exist if it were not for attractions.

Part One \ defining attractions \ ...

attraction defined
Attraction defined

A designated permanent resource which is controlled and managed for the enjoyment, amusement, entertainment, and education of the visiting public.

(Middleton, 1988)

Part One \ defining attractions \ ...

what is an attraction
What is an attraction?
  • Natural Environment;
  • Man made attractions
    • Tourist,
    • Non-tourist purpose;
  • Special Events.

Boundaries are not always clear cut ! („Reichstag“ )

 Please visit:

Part One \ defining attractions \ ...

terminology and interrelations
Terminology and Interrelations

visitor attractions and tourist attractions

attractions and destinations

attractions, support services and facilities

resort complexes

attractions and activities

Part One \ defining attractions \ ...

classification of visitor attractions
Classification of visitor attractions


Primary and secondary attractions

Catchment area

Visitor numbers



Target markets

Benefits sought

Part One \ defining attractions \ ...

ownership of attractions
Ownership of Attractions

Part One \ defining attractions \ ...

swarbrooke s development of destinations
Single attraction;

Embryonic destination:- Services develop around the single attraction;

Developed single market destination:

- Other attractions,designed for same market;

Diversified destination:- Other attractions, designed designed for new markets.

Swarbrooke's development of destinations

Part One \ The role ... \ Attractions and other sectors of tourism



Feasibility Study

feasibility study contents
Feasibility study contents
  • The market study
    • Who will visit the attraction?- domestic and foreign holidaymakers, day trippers, School and college groups, local residents- age, sex, class, stage in family life-cycle
    • How many people will visit the attraction?- population of catchment area, number of holidaymakers visiting the area, competitors targeting the same market segments
    • Where they will come from?- catchment area
    • When will the visitors come?- degree of seasonality affects staffing, attraction capacity and cash flow management

Part Two \ Development process \ Feasibility study

feasibility study contents12
Feasibility study contents
  • Site selection criteria
    • Proximity to major centres of population
    • Transport networks and their reliability
    • Existence of other attractions in the area
    • Socio-economic profile of the catchment area
    • Availability of suppliers/services
    • Amount, type, quality and costs of land
    • Regulations on the use of land
    • The climate
    • Availability of qualified labour at acceptable costs
    • Public sector financial assistance and ‘help in kind’
    • Attitude of local community towards planned project

Part Two \ Development process \ Feasibility study

feasibility study contents13
Feasibility study contents


Break-even point


Variable costs

Fixed Costs


Number of visits

  • Financial viability
    • based on calculation of COSTS and REVENUES
    • Depending on the type of organization viability means to produce a profit or surplus on running costs
    • Cashflow management
    • Break-even analysis

Part Two \ Development process \ Feasibility study



Business Planning

why plan
Why Plan?

Identify what business you are in;

To determine where you are now;

Determine where you want to be in the future- 12 months / 3 years / 5 years(clear, measurable objectives);

Identify how to get there- how do you achieve those objectives?(action plan);

Part Two \ Development process \ Business Planning

what does planning encompass
What does planning encompass?
  • Business is primarily about one thing only, determining what it is the consumer wantsand providing it at a profit.
  • Strategic positioning;
  • Market research;
  • Financials;
  • Marketing strategy;
  • Human resource management;
  • Operational planning.


Part Two \ Development process \ Business Planning



Marketing Planning

visitor attractions as service products
Visitor attractions as service products






  • Staffis part of the product itself- attitudes and behaviour affect enjoyment
  • Intangible elements dominate the attraction product- encourage to buy on basis of an imagination
  • The product is perishable- ensure consumption/income before product perishes
  • Customers are partof the production process- affects on experience are largely outside control
  • Service products arenever really standardized- quality control difficult; guarantees??

Part Three \ The marketing concept

visitor attractions and tourism marketing
visitor attractions and tourism marketing

The product is an experience- that begins in advance of consumption and continues …- visitors rarely distinguish between responsibilities

The product offers only shared use rights- try to avoid conflicts between different groups

The product offers only temporary use rights- “the longer the stay the higher the spending”

The product is rarely being delivered to the customer- good signposting, directions and brochures are essential

The demandfor the product is highly seasonal

Part Three \ The marketing concept

scope of strategic marketing planning
Scope of strategic marketing planning !!!

Where are we now?- analysing the organizations current situation and direction

Where do we want to be in the future?- establishing mission statements, setting goals and objectives

How are we going to get there?- devising strategies and tactics helping to achieve these goals and objectives, and looking at implementation issues

How will we know when we get there?- monitoring and performance evaluation strategies, and systems for modifying strategies in response to monitoring

Part Three \ Strategic marketing planning

swot analysis
SWOT analysis





internal factors

within control

(current situation)

external factors

outside control

(market direction)

Part Three \ Strategic marketing planning \ Where are we now?

what to do with the swot
What to do with the SWOT?


few visitors inoff-peak season

Conversion Strategy:

attract school-group visits at low fares in off-peak season


- balanced cash flow

- loyal visitors (return visits)

- grater awareness (parents, relatives)

- sanitised public image

- ….

Every section holds potential to put forward strategies

For example, weaknesses and threats can be converted to strengths and opportunities. Whilst strengths can be matched to opportunities.

Part Three \ Strategic marketing planning \ Where are we now?

product positioning
Product positioning

Theme Park



( )







Positioning disparity

Competitor analysis

Where customers perceive you to be in the marketplace

If there are disparities between the customer and the manager‘s viewpoint:- change the market or the product in order to reflect/match the views of the customers!

Part Three \ Strategic marketing planning \ Where are we now?



Implementing Marketing Strategies

basic statements
Basic statements

Marketing strategies are generally implemented through

Marketing Plans.

Implementing marketing strategies is mainly about

manipulating the Marketing Mix.

Implementing marketing strategies requires to keep up

with the latest Developments in Marketing.

Part Three \ The implementation of marketing strategies \ How are we going to get there?

marketing mix
Marketing Mix

Place of purchase

Product levels (Kotler)


Designed characteristics


Service components

Image / Reputation





Booking agencies


Ticket systems



List price






Value for money

Direct marketing

Cost of travelling

Sales promotion

Methods of payment

Personal selling

Price / Quality trade off

Press and public relations





Part Three \ The implementation of marketing strategies \ How are we going to get there?

the seven ps
The seven Ps

People – staff in terms of:training, appearance, behaviour, customer contact, …

Physical evidence – environmentlayout, noise, cleanliness, furnishing, …

Process – corporate policies and proceduresemployee empowerment, customer involvement, …

Extension of the ‘product’ category !but emphasizes the importance of those three factorsfor service products

Part Three \ The implementation of marketing strategies \ How are we going to get there?

how will we know when we get there
How will we know when we get there?

Evaluation requires that:- the marketing strategy contains measurable targets- there are management information systems, providing up-to-date information of the organizations performance - must provide internal data on the performance - and external information on business environment- there are control mechanisms to allow corrective actions

Corrective actions should be fed back into the strategy!!!

Part Three \ The implementation of marketing strategies \ How will we know when we get there?



Human Resource …

human resource management

Human Resource Management

  • Considered to be the most important aspect of management
  • Attitudes and abilities of staff have a crucial impact on the visitors experience
  • Labour costs are likely to be the largest single items on the attractions budget

Part Three \ Human Resource Management

problems of hrm at visitor attractions

Problems of HRM at visitor attractions

Tourism industry suffers from bad reputation in HRM

  • High turnover of staff
  • Seasonality of demand
  • Poor status of jobs
  • Lack of career structures
  • Unusually demanding jobs
  • lack of management expertise
  • Lack of widely recognized qualification and training schemes

Part Three \ Human Resource Management \ Problems



Quality …

quality management and services
Quality management and services

No standardized product- difficult to adopt standardized quality control systems- affected by a number of variables- the product is different for every customer

Intangibility and perishability- ‚faults‘ in the product cannot be easily seen - not ease to replace a ‚faulty‘ product

Services are often complex products- involving a huge number of elements which are interdependent and difficult to monitor

Part Three \ Quality management

quality management systems at attractions
Quality management systems at attractions

There are three main points to consider:- what definition of quality to use- what performance standards to use and what measurement system to implement- what systems to adopt to achieve quality

Part Three \ Quality management

visitor management
Visitor management

visitor management incorporates aspects of both:quality management and green issues, and is the most critical part of the day-to-day management at the site

Tries to ensure an experience without disturbancesby providing a trouble-free sequence of events

Aims to minimize negative environmental andsocio-cultural impact caused by the use of the attr.

Although most important for non-purpose built attractions,there is a certain relevance for all types of attractions

Part Three \ Visitor management

visitor management36
Visitor management








Maximizequality ofproduct/service







- environment- and assets

Minimizenegative impact

Part Three \ Visitor management

problems to deal with
Problems to deal with

Damage on environment caused by visitors- wildlife, flora and fauna, pollution by traffic

Damage on assets caused by visitors- intentional, unintentionally caused by heavy use

Disturbances in visitor flow- bottleneck situations, waiting times

Accessibility of certain areas - restricted access caused by construction work- distances between attractions on site- handycapped visitors

Part Three \ Visitor management