Tornados. Author R.T. Schindler. Distributed by the Disaster Team Supercourse (www.pitt.edu/~super1). Developers. Developed by Randall Schindler while at Steven F. Austin University Distributed by the Supercourse Tornado Team, Harold Brooks, NOAA, Daniel Mccarthy, NOAA, Schaefer, NOAA
Author R.T. Schindler
Distributed by the Disaster Team
"Tornadoes" lecture by Lillibridge, Scott Rwww.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec14141/015.htm
"A Historical Look at Tornadoes: Damage and Death" by Harold Brookswww.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec14321/index.htm which have also threemore links to online lectures: Development of synthetic severe thunderstorm climatologies(http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/users/brooks/public_html/present/synworld.html)Tornado deaths in the US and mobile homes(http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/users/brooks/public_html/present/mobile.html)The distribution of tornadoes by F-scale in time and spaceHarold Brooks.(http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/users/brooks/public_html/present/Fujita_2K3.html) “Tornado-Related deaths and injuries due to the May 3, 1999 by Sheryll Brown, Pam Archer,Elizabeth Kruger and corresponding author Sue Mallonee from InjuryPrevention Service, Oklahoma State Department of Health
On March, 25 1948, Major Fawbush and Captain Miller determined that the conditions of the atmosphere just west of Tinker AFB, OK were suitable for tornado development. The first tornado forecast ever was issued. A few hours later, a tornado arrived causing significant damage to the base. However, no deaths and only a few injuries occurred because many had been warned by the tornado forecast.
A violently rotating column of air (vortex), hanging from a cumulonimbus cloud, with circulation that touches the surface of the earth
Tornado forms here
A typical late afternoon tornado
Tornado Alley covers the Great Plains states
In 1971, Dr. Fujita developed a way of measuring the winds of a tornado. He reasoned that there was a link between wind speed and the damage caused by a tornado. There are 6 categories of tornados (F0 – F5)
Damage: bark peeled off trees, houses lifted off foundations, vehicles travel greater than 100 m through the air
Meteorologists who predict tornado development analyze the current atmospheric conditions such as: air temp., barometric pressure, the locations of fronts, wind velocities, convection, etc. Probably the most useful tool a meteorologist can use to identify tornados is radar, specifically Doppler radar (WSR-88D)
Doppler image of a rain-wrapped tornado
Tornado funnel develops (may be transparent) and extends down from the cloud to the ground
tornado may remain stationary and take on a ropelike appearance before dissipating
Microbursts are downdrafts from thunderstorms consisting of a narrow column of cool air traveling at high speeds which can cause damage similar to a weak tornado over a small area
A waterspout is a tornado that forms over a body of water, or a tornado that moves from land onto water
Storm chasers are a group made up of meteorologists and scientists, as well as amateur observers who voluntarily put themselves in the path of a severe thunderstorm in order to hopefully observe a tornado and obtain photographs and scientific data.
Tornados mainly cause damage by picking up something and throwing it through the air or hurling objects against something
A 20-ton trailer blown off U.S. 30; it bounced 5 times
A pick-up truck caught in the path of a tornado
The National Storm Prediction Center constantly monitors the weather and radars across the U.S. They are responsible for issuing tornado watches and warnings.