By: Team N Katelyn B. Bowen James W. Ellermeyer Lindsay A. Johnson Kaitlin M. Murphy Kimberly A. Vruwink The Negative Externalities of Pollution WE ARE a Fossil Fueled Economy Our cars and other dominant forms of transport run primarily on gasoline derived from oil.
Cleanest/Best Counties in the US
Dirtiest/Worst Counties in the US
0best 100 worst
50-100% Dirtiest/Worst Chemical Releases or Waste Generation
Total environmental releases: 50-60%
Air releases: 50-60%
Water releases: 40-50%
Total off-site transfers: 90-100%
Total production-related waste:
What is land Pollution?
Examples of Land Pollution
Soil pollution is mainly due to chemicals in herbicides (weed killers) and pesticides (poisons which kill insects and other invertebrate pests).
Litter is waste material dumped in public places such as streets, parks, picnic areas, at bus stops and near shops.
The accumulation of waste threatens the health of people in residential areas. Waste decays, encourages household pests and turns urban areas into unsightly, dirty and unhealthy places to live in.
as well as
of the soil itself.
*Punishment of polluters through regulation, taxation, fines, toxic tort suits, and other disincentives; encourage industries, companies and families to use nonpolluting approaches
*education of the public plays a HUGE role towards the betterment of our environment.
Demonstrating Oil Protesters
Oil Spill Clean-up
Workers use special nets to clean up a
California beach after an oil tanker spill.
Tanker spills are an increasing environmental
problem because once oil has spilled, it is
virtually impossible to completely remove or
contain it. Even small amounts spread rapidly
across large areas of water. Because oil and
water do not mix, the oil floats on the water
and then washes up on broad expanses of
shoreline. Attempts to chemically treat or sink
the oil may further disrupt marine and beach
* helped control surface water pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States.
When congress passed the Clean
Water Act in 1972, states were given
primary authority to set their own
standards for their water.
*Air pollution is caused by any undesirable substance, which enters the atmosphere.
*Air pollution is a major problem in modern society. Air pollution is typically a greater problem in cities, pollutants contaminate air everywhere.
*These substances include various gases and tiny particles, or particulates that can harm human health and damage the environment.
*Air pollution may be gases, liquids, or solids. Many pollutants are given off into the air as a result of human behavior.
*Pollution occurs on different levels: personal, national, and global.
Examples of Air Pollution
of Air Pollution
The Greenhouse effect prevents the sun's heat from rising out of the atmosphere and flowing back into space. This warms the earth's surface causing the green house effect.
activities such as the burning of fossil fuels are creating a gaseous layer that is too dense to allow the heat to escape. Many scientists believe this is causing global warming.
Acid rain forms when moisture in the air interacts with nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide released by factories, power plants, and motor vehicles that burn coal or oil. This interaction of gases with water vapor forms sulfuric acid and nitric acids.
Damage to the ozone layer is primarily caused by the use of CFCs. CFCs were formerly used widely in industry, for example as refrigerants, propellants, and cleaning solvents
The depletion of ozone is causing higher levels of UV radiation on earth, endangering both plants and animals.
Noise PollutionNoise pollution or unwanted sounds that are carried by the air, have an irritating and detrimental effect on humans and other animals.
-Careful planning of streets and buildings in towns and better control over noisy vehicles may add to the control of noise pollution.
Tobacco SmokeTobacco smoke is one of the major forms of pollution in buildings. It is not only the smoker who is infected, but everyone who inhales the polluted air.
Exhaust Gases of VehiclesPollution from exhaust gases of vehicles is responsible for 60% of all air pollution and in cities up to 80%.
Although individual people can help to combat air pollution in their own immediate environment, efficient control can be best achieved by legislation. Some commonly enforced control measures include;
*The United States, Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1970.
-gave the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to institute and enforce air pollution values and to set emission standards for new factories and particularly harmful industrial pollutants.
Global air pollution map produced by Envisat's SCIAMACHY
Current Event/ Case Study #1: Obama will protect public lands, pursue green energy
*Western Democrats and environmentalists will have more influence on federal land decisions in Idaho and the West under President Barack Obama.
*Decision-makers will defer more to scientists on resource issues and spending priorities will shift toward protecting land, fish and wildlife, Democrats said Tuesday night.
*"He’s not going to make some of the mistakes of the past," said Cecil Andrus, former Idaho governor and Jimmy Carter’s interior secretary. "He knows his history."
*Issues like climate change and alternative energy - along with the economy - are going to get more attention in the new administration than public lands grazing, logging and motorized recreation. And the skyrocketing federal deficit could force a reorganization of land, water and wildlife agencies now spread out under three different Cabinet departments.
*WASHINGTON - The Interior Department plans to make available 190 million acres of federal land in
a dozen Western states for development of geothermal energy projects - a move that could produce
enough electricity for 5 million homes.
*Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne said yesterday that under a leasing program, as many as 270
communities could benefit from direct use of geothermal energy, generated from intense heat deep
beneath the Earth.
*"Geothermal energy is replenished, is a renewable resource that generates electricity with
minimalcarbon emissions . . . (and) reduces the need for conventional energy sources," said
*Kempthorne announced completion of an environmental review of the proposed leasing program
which will include both federal forest and rangelands. The national parks such as Yellowstone, which
is renowned for its geothermal geysers, remain off limits to leasing, he said.
The Interior Department said it will issue specific land areas that will be open for leasing. Each project
will still have to undergo site-specific environmental reviews.
*The broader environmental review for the overall leasing program calls for 118 million acres of land
managed by Interior's Bureau of Land Management, and 79 million acres under the US Forest
Service, to be made available for potential geothermal development.