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The evolution of SMBH from Hard X-ray surveys . The XRB as a tracer of SMBH mass density Hard X-ray surveys: observational results Near-IR observations of hard X-ray sources Evidences of merging Conclusions and perspectives. Andrea Comastri (INAF – Osservatorio di Bologna – Italy).

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the evolution of smbh from hard x ray surveys

The evolution of SMBH from Hard X-ray surveys

  • The XRB as a tracer of SMBH mass density
  • Hard X-ray surveys: observational results
  • Near-IR observations of hard X-ray sources
  • Evidences of merging
  • Conclusions and perspectives

Andrea Comastri

(INAF – Osservatorio di Bologna – Italy)

hard x ray surveys
Hard X-ray Surveys
  • Most direct probe of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) accretion activity recorded in the XRB spectral energy density
  • Chandra and XMM surveys: SMBH census is almost complete (integral)  obscured AGN make the bulk of the XRB
  • The light-up and evolution of obscured

accreting SMBH is still largely unknown (differential)  XLF evolution of obscured AGN

the deepest x ray sky
The deepest X-ray sky

Chandra Surveys, 1 Ms exposures

CDFS (Giacconi et al. 2002)

HDFN (Brandt et al. 2001)

the origin of the cosmic xrb
The origin of the cosmic XRB

A truly diffuse component not exceeding 10% of the observed flux (warm IGM, missing baryons …)may still be present in the soft (below 2 keV) X-ray band 

the hard XRB (2-100 keV) is due to single sources (X-ray surveys, CMB argument)

OBSCURED

AGN

slide8

Where all the SMBH have gone ?

N(L), N(z), efficiency, bolometric correction ?

deep fields redshift distributions
DEEP FIELDS: Redshift Distributions
  • CDFN, Barger et al.

2002

CDFS, Gilli 2003

cosmic sheets
Cosmic Sheets

Z=0.67

CDFS

CDFN

x ray source clustering yang et al 2003 astro ph 0302137
X-ray source clusteringYang et al. 2003 (astro-ph/0302137)
  • Hard X-ray

sources more

clustered than

soft ones

slide12

The same LSS is

traced by both

X-ray and near IR

surveys

Gilli et al. 2003 (astro-ph/0304177)

luminosity function
Luminosity function:
  • Cowie et al. 2003

astro-ph/0301231

  • Hasinger 2003

astro-ph/0302574

space density
Space density:
  • Cowie et al. 2003:

rho_BH ~ 2x105

Hasinger 2003

deep chandra surveys limits
Deep Chandra surveys: limits
  • Small solid angle  lack of high z high L objects
  • Soft X-ray response  biased against highly obscured objects
  • Limited by faint optical counterparts and thus incomplete at high-z
the hellas2xmm survey
The Hellas2XMM survey
  • Wide and shallow:

3 deg2 (15 XMM public fields)

~30 sources/field, Fx>10-14

 Bulk of the XRB

  • Rare and peculiar sources,

avoid cosmic variance

  • Relatively “easy” multi-wavelength follow-up (ESO-VLT,3.6m, ATCA, VLA, TNG & Chandra)
slide17

X/O

--------

fX/fopt > 10

Likely to be highly obscured

Undetected in the

R-band at R=24-25

(shallow), even

R>27-28 (deep)

Constant fraction

over a large range

of fluxes

Shallow surveys

pick-up brightest

sources  optical

identification is

possible

317 sources hellas2xmm lockman cdfn ssa13 15 logfx 13 3 70 identified fiore et al 2003
317 sources (Hellas2XMM + Lockman + CDFN + SSA13 -15 < logFx < -13.3 , 70% identified) Fiore et al. 2003
slide22

K-band

observations

of high X/0

Selection:

  • 11 sources
  • R > 24.5
  • Flx(2-10) > 1.2 10-14
  • VLT/ISAAC
  • 1 hour exp. in K
  • Seeing < 0.7 arcsec
  • Mag lim. ≈ 21
isaac vlt k band observations of high x o
ISAAC VLT K-band observations of high X/O

10/11 sources with a bright IR counterpart in the error box:

ALL with R-K>5

—————————

Extremely red colors

up to R-K~7 !

—————————

Extended morphologies

Only two objects are compact (high z AGN ?)

Elliptical, K=17.9, R-K=6.5

Pointlike, K=17.7, R-K>6.8

Cluster CD ?, K=18.7, R-K=6.0

Disky, K=18.4, R-K=5.8

(Mignoli et al, in prep.)

slide24

High quality imaging

  • Surface brightness

and effective radius

BH mass estimate

via FP and

M(BH) vs. sigma relation

NEED z

Red=de Vaucouleurs

Blue=exponential

the x o ratio is correlated with the r k color hope to get spectroscopic redshifts in the infrared
The X/O ratio is correlated with the R-K color:hope to get spectroscopic redshifts in the infrared
concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks
  • The XRB appears to be dominated by low-z low-L objects
  • The SMBH mass density is almost equally accounted for by unobscured and obscured AGN (lower mass on average)
  • Obscured AGN are hosted by a wide variety of galaxy types
  • Redshifts for optically faint (high X/O) obscured sources urgently needed