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Sustainable Improvement in Management and Organizational Effectiveness. Vice Chancellor Wendell C. Brase University of California, Irvine. Sustainable Improvement. Based on values and principles Goals that can be expressed as performance expectations

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sustainable improvement in management and organizational effectiveness

Sustainable Improvementin Management and Organizational Effectiveness

Vice Chancellor Wendell C. Brase

University of California, Irvine

sustainable improvement
Sustainable Improvement
  • Based on values and principles
  • Goals that can be expressed as performance expectations
  • Based on an empirically-verifiable behavioral model
  • Measurable results that support learning and performance improvement
sustainable improvement3
Sustainable Improvement
  • Goals that can be expressed as performance expectations
  • Based on an empirically-verifiable behavioral model
  • Measurable results that support performance improvement
  • Based on values and principles
envisioned values principles
Envisioned Values & Principles

Teamwork requires individuals to enter into interdependencies involving risk, which requires a foundation of trust.

envisioned values principles5
Envisioned Values & Principles

People can create interdependencies involving trust and vulnerability when they feel that facts and neutral data are valued.

envisioned values principles6
Envisioned Values & Principles

No one is rewarded for looking good at the expense of another. Team players are committed to each others’ success.

envisioned values principles7
Envisioned Values & Principles

Innovation requires open debate about many “wrong” ideas. Process redesign starts with creative chaos and early mistakes in order to avoid late-stage errors.

envisioned values principles8
Envisioned Values & Principles

Interpersonal problems are resolved effectively -- limiting the degree to which they undermine teamwork by distorting perceptions of others’ motives, which can occur when stakeholders struggle with change.

envisioned values principles9
Envisioned Values & Principles

Innovation, continuous improvement, and a willingness to question the status quo are valued by supervisors and co-workers.

sustainable improvement10
Sustainable Improvement
  • Based on values and principles
  • Based on an empirically-verifiable behavioral model
  • Measurable results that support performance improvement
  • Goals that can be expressed as performance expectations
group and individual performance expectations
Group and Individual Performance Expectations

1. People who seek better methods are respected and rewarded.

2. People experience mutual respect in the workplace.

3. Groups value member suggestions, including ones that are initially “wrong.”

4. Co-workers produce ideas to help solve problems when they surface.

5. Problems with the way the group does its work are addressed.

6. Members can criticize the way the work group functions without penalty.

slide12

Group and Individual Performance Expectations

7. People can discuss problems without fear of looking stupid to co-workers.

8. Interpersonal conflicts are addressed in the work group.

9. Differences of opinion about how to get the job done are discussed openly.

10. Differences of opinion about how to get the job done are resolved using facts.

11. Everyone shares responsibility for the results of group tasks.

sustainable improvement13
Sustainable Improvement
  • Based on values and principles
  • Goals that can be expressed as performance expectations
  • Measurable results that support performance improvement
  • Based on an empirically-verifiable behavioral model
slide14

Does Management Matter ?

Management behaviors

?

Better or worse organizational effectiveness

workplace effectiveness measures
Workplace Effectiveness Measures
  • Work groups share a common set of goals (Q10)
  • Work groups embrace the same standards of effectiveness (Q11)
  • Work groups share common values of service, quality, and excellence (Q12)
  • Work groups are committed to meet the needs of customers (Q19)
workplace effectiveness measures16
Workplace Effectiveness Measures...
  • Work groups continually improve practices, productivity, and effectiveness (Q18)
  • Work groups rate themselves “efficient and productive” (Q20)
  • Work groups do not wait for complaints before tackling new problems (Q15)
slide18

An Emerging Model?

Management behaviors

?

Intermediary Variables?

?

Effectiveness Measures

workplace cooperation measures
Workplace Cooperation Measures…
  • Differences of opinion about how to get the job done are discussed(Q23)
  • Everyone shares responsibility for the results of group tasks(Q3)
  • A suggestion about work methods is valued even if it’s initially “wrong”(Q5)
workplace cooperation measures20
Workplace Cooperation Measures...
  • When problems surface co-workers produce information and ideas that help solve the problem (Q6)
  • When faced with a setback or challenging problem the work group experiences fewer interpersonal problems (Q7)
  • Group members share expertise when facing a challenging task (Q13)
workplace cooperation measures21
Workplace Cooperation Measures
  • Leadership responsibilities are shared and frequently handed off(Q14)
  • Little concern about whether tasks are divided “fairly”(Q17)
  • Problems with the way the work group functions are faced and attended to(Q21)
workplace cooperation measures 9 measures 89
Workplace Cooperation Measures(9 measures)  = .89

Partial Model

r² = .74

Effectiveness Measures(7 measures)  = .90

slide24

Partial Model

Management behaviors

?

Intermediary Variables?

?

Workplace Cooperation Measures

r² = .74

Workplace Effectiveness Measures

slide25

Partial Model

Workplace Respect Measures

(6 measures)

 = .87

Workplace Cooperation Measures

(9 measures)

 = .89

r² = .74

Effectiveness Measures

(7 measures)

 = .90

workplace respect measures
Workplace Respect Measures…
  • People who seek better methods are

respected and rewarded(Q1)

  • Interpersonal conflicts are addressed and resolved(Q22)
  • People can criticize the way the work group functions without penalty(Q8)
workplace respect measures27
Workplace Respect Measures
  • People recognize and accept each other’s strengths and weaknesses(Q16)
  • People can share (work) problems without concern about “appearing stupid”(Q9)
  • Co-workers experience a climate of mutual respect(Q4)
slide28

Partial Model

Workplace Respect Measures

(6 measures)

 = .87

r² = .77

Workplace Cooperation Measures

(9 measures)

 = .89

r² = .74

Effectiveness Measures

(7 measures)

 = .90

management behaviors tested
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Takes time to listen and understand my views

Works well with other managers

Supports equal opportunity

Cares about employees as individuals

Finds "win-win" solutions

Communicates honestly with me

Accepts constructive criticism without becoming defensive

Keeps promises and commitments

Rewards the best performers

Seeks different views when solving problems

Acts in ways that build respect in him/her

Makes me feel stupid when we disagree

Makes excuses rather than accept responsibility

management behaviors tested31
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Bases his/her actions on a consistent set of principles

Models the behavior he/she expects from others

Has earned my complete trust

Takes steps to improve bad relationships

Trusts my judgment

Makes important decisions based on the organization’s best interests

Helps me understand "the bigger picture”

Admits mistakes and moves on

Does the most important things first

Communicates what he/she expects me to accomplish

Shows respect when communicating

Separates vital tasks from less important ones

Gains advantage by holding back information

management behaviors tested32
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Sets challenging objectives

Emphasizes shared goals for the department

Clarifies standards of quality and effectiveness

Values the experiences and perspectives of people from diverse backgrounds

Explains the reasons for change

Lets me know whether I’m doing a good job

Reduces complicated problems to the essentials

Sorts essential from unimportant information

Pinpoints root causes of complex problems

Maintains consistency between words and actions

Supports my professional development

Remains confident despite setbacks

Loses his/her temper under pressure

management behaviors tested33
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Remains effective under pressure

Involves me in important decisions

Learns from his/her mistakes

Intensifies focus on goals when under pressure

Takes action to stop rule-breaking

Sees change as an opportunity

Expects everyone to play by the same rules

Looks at problems from many angles

Re-thinks practices that have never been questioned

Will try new, potentially better methods

Resists complexity in work procedures

Recruits and promotes fairly regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, or age

management behaviors tested34
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Treats new ideas with respect

Will try unconventional ways to achieve results

Recognizes that my needs and abilities differ from others’

Willingly shares his/her expertise with me

Wants communication to follow chain-of-command

Is available to help me when I need it

Understands the work problems I face

Puts the good of the organization ahead of personal gain

Focuses resources based on customer needs

Emphasizes the importance of deadlines

Treats me with dignity and respect

Takes calculated risks to achieve improvements

Makes some people look good at others’ expense

management behaviors tested35
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Rewards initiative

Speaks convincingly when presenting to a group

Will welcome an unconventional suggestion

Recruits talented people

Penetrates surface issues and probes deeply

Delegates decision-making whenever possible

Will not penalize when a new idea fails

Is energetic

Conveys a strong commitment to goals

Takes action to resolve interpersonal conflicts in his/her area of responsibility

Conveys excitement about new ideas

Communicates an inspiring vision for change

management behaviors tested36
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Expresses a passion for excellence

Talks optimistically about the future

Sets objectives and monitors results (rather than tell me how to do my job)

Pays attention to administrative details

Becomes determined when faced with setbacks

Expresses confidence that I can meet his/her performance standards

Wants my opinion about proposed actions

Provides feedback when I share my ideas

Maintains confidence in me even if I make a big mistake

Wants my frank opinion when I doubt an action he/she is considering

Uses recognition to motivate my performance

Uses money to motivate my performance

management behaviors tested37
Management Behaviors Tested

My Supervisor…

Uses threats and consequences to ensure my performance

Waits until a problem escalates before acting

Treats disagreement as disloyalty

May retaliate if I question his/her decision

Favors an “in group” of subordinates

Gets irritated when I bring him/her bad news

Uses power for his/her own personal agenda

Takes offense quickly

Is emotionally unpredictable

Won't change direction if it means admitting a mistake

Blames others when things go wrong

Discourages my bringing up problems

effective management behaviors grouped into 6 management qualities
Effective Management Behaviors Grouped into 6 Management Qualities

1. Values New Ideas

  • My supervisor…
  • Rewards initiative(Q24.24)
  • Will try new, potentially better methods(Q24.8)
  • Treats new ideas with respect(Q24.22)
effective management behaviors grouped into 6 management qualities39
Effective Management Behaviors Grouped into 6 Management Qualities

1. Values New Ideas

2. Values Others’ Views

  • Involves subordinates in important decisions(Q24.19)
  • Takes time to listen and understand(Q24.1)
  • Provides feedback when subordinates share ideas(Q24.23)
effective management behaviors grouped into 6 management qualities40
Effective Management Behaviors Grouped into 6 Management Qualities

1. Values New Ideas

2. Values Others’ Views

3. Appreciates Differences Among People

  • Recognizes that individuals’ needs and abilities differ(Q24.20)
  • Values the experiences and perspectives of people from diverse backgrounds(Q24.5)
effective management behaviors grouped into 6 management qualities41
Effective Management Behaviors Grouped into 6 Management Qualities

1. Values New Ideas

2. Values Others’ Views

3. Appreciates Differences Among People

4. Takes Action to Solve Problems and Conflicts

  • Takes steps to improve bad relationships(Q24.4)
  • Takes action to resolve interpersonal conflicts(Q24.10)
  • Finds win/win solutions(Q24.6)
  • Learns from his/her mistakes(Q24.21)
  • Sorts essential from unimportant information(Q23.13)
effective management behaviors grouped into 6 management qualities42
Effective Management Behaviors Grouped into 6 Management Qualities

1. Values New Ideas

2. Values Others’ Views

3. Appreciates Differences Among People

4. Takes Action to Solve Problems and Conflicts

5. Communicates Expectations

  • Communicates what he/she expects to be accomplished (Q24.11)
  • Provides understandable performance data (Q2)
effective management behaviors grouped into 6 management qualities43
Effective Management Behaviors Grouped into 6 Management Qualities

1. Values New Ideas

2. Values Others’ Views

3. Appreciates Differences Among People

4. Takes Action to Solve Problems and Conflicts

5. Communicates Expectations

6. Principled

  • Maintains consistency between words and actions (Q24.16)
  • Acts in ways that build respect in him/her (Q24.2)
  • Models the behavior he/she expects from others (Q24.3)
  • Recruits and promotes fairly regardless of race, gender,
  • sexual orientation, or age (Q24.15)
slide44

Management Effectiveness Model

Effective Management Behaviors

(19 behaviors)

 = .98

r² = .66

Workplace Respect Measures

(6 measures)

 = .87

r² = .77

Workplace Cooperation Measures

(9 measures)

 = .89

r² = .74

Effectiveness Measures

(7 measures)

 = .90

leadership qualities and behaviors
Leadership Qualities and Behaviors

My supervisor...

  • Appears self-confident (Q24.7)
  • Remains confident despite setbacks(Q24.9)
  • Talks optimistically about the future(Q24.12)
  • Conveys a strong commitment to goals(Q24.17)
  • Communicates inspiring vision for change(Q24.18)
  • Presents convincingly to a group(Q24.14)
management detractors
Management Detractors

My supervisor...

  • Loses temper under pressure(Q24.28)
  • Makes some people look good at others’ expense (Q24.29)
  • Discourages bringing up problems (Q24.25)
  • Favors an “in group” of subordinates (Q24.27)
  • Waits until a problem escalates before acting (Q24.30)
  • Makes subordinates feel stupid when they disagree (Q24.26)
slide48

Leadership Qualities and Behaviors

(6 behaviors)

 = .94

r² = .86

Management Detractors

(6 behaviors)

 = .92

Effective Management Behaviors

(19 behaviors)

 = .98

r² = .63

(r = -.79)

r² = .66

Workplace Respect Measures

(6 measures)

 = .87

r² = .77

Workplace Cooperation Measures

(9 measures)

 = .89

r² = .74

Effectiveness Measures

(7 measures)

 = .90

sustainable improvement51
Sustainable Improvement
  • Based on values and principles
  • Goals that can be expressed as performance expectations
  • Based on an empirically-verifiable behavioral model
  • Measurable results that support performance improvement
slide53

I know about and understand the data my unit uses to measure its performance

My Supervisor takes time to listen and understand my views

My supervisor values

experiences and perspectives

of people from diverse

backgrounds

When work problems surface

my co-workers produce

information and ideas that help

solve the problem

slide54

Leadership Qualities and Behaviors

(6 behaviors)

Sensitivity Analysis

Management Detractors

(6 behaviors)

Effective Management Behaviors

(19 behaviors)

Workplace Respect Measures

(6 measures)

Workplace Cooperation Measures

(9 measures)

Effectiveness Measures

(7 measures)

slide55
FAQs
  • Can the survey be “gamed”?
  • Minimum N for valid results?
  • Can results be used to evaluate individuals’ performance?
  • What scores amount to a “wake-up call”?
  • What can a manager do about low scores?
thank you

UCI

University of California, Irvine

Thank You

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www.abs.uci.edu