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SOFTWARE LIFE-CYCLES Beyond the Waterfall Milestones The WATERFALL LIFE-CYCLE Requirements System Design Standards Detailed Design Implementation Installation & Testing Documents Maintenance Problems with the Waterfall Model sequentiality late testing paradigm

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software life cycles

SOFTWARE LIFE-CYCLES

Beyond the Waterfall

slide2

Milestones

The

WATERFALL

LIFE-CYCLE

Requirements

System Design

Standards

Detailed Design

Implementation

Installation & Testing

Documents

Maintenance

problems with the waterfall model
Problems with the Waterfall Model
  • sequentiality
  • late testing paradigm
  • late feedback

to customer and engineer

  • minimal risk management

for customer and engineer

slide4

The “V” LIFE-CYCLE

Requirements

Acceptance Test

System Design

Integration Test

Detailed Design

Module Test

Implementation

analysis of the v shaped life cycle
Analysis of the V-Shaped Life-Cycle
  • Improves the testing paradigm

==> Quality Assurance

  • Does NOT really improve:
    • sequentiality
    • feedback
    • risk management (during development)
slide6

INCREMENTAL

DEVELOPMENT

Requirements

Global System Design

Detailed D.

Detailed D.

Detailed D.

Implem.

Implem.

Implem.

Testing

Testing

Testing

Maintenance

analysis of incremental development
Analysis of Incremental Development
  • Assumes independent subsystems!
  • Improves (by delivering smaller units):
    • feedback: stepwise
    • testing
  • Avoids monolithic product
  • Does not really improve:
    • risk management during development
    • sequentiality: subsystems
rapid prototyping
(Rapid) Prototyping
  • Goals:
    • break away from sequentiality
    • speed up feedback
    • minimize risks for

customer and engineer

    • incomplete but executable
    • cheap and fast
prototyping
Prototyping
  • Definition (A. Davis):

A prototype is a partial implementation of a system, constructed primarily to enable customer, user, or developer to learn about the problem or its solution.

  • Types:
    • evolutionary / throw-away
    • horizontal / vertical
horizontal prototyping
Horizontal Prototyping

f1

fn

user

hardware

vertical prototyping
Vertical Prototyping

f1

fn

user

hardware

analysis of pure prototyping
Analysis of Pure Prototyping
  • Improvements:
    • breaks sequentiality
    • supports fast feedback
    • opportunity for risk management
  • Problems:
    • missing organisational structure

==> combine with a life-cycle

the spiral model
The Spiral Model
  • Goals:
    • risk management
    • compatible mix between

clear structure (life-cycle) &

flexible prototyping

    • supports fast feedback & quality assurance
slide14

evaluate alternatives,

identify & resolve risks

determine objectives,

alternatives,

constraints

risk analysis

p r o t o t y p e s

principles

req. plan

require-

system

ments

dev.

detailed

design

design

plan

integ.

plan

implement

plan the next

phase

test &

install

develop &

verify product

end of section 1c
End of Section 1c

coming up:

methodologies

for analysis &

design