growing of internet a permanent challenge for designers and network engineering l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Growing of Internet a permanent challenge for designers and network engineering PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Growing of Internet a permanent challenge for designers and network engineering

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

Growing of Internet a permanent challenge for designers and network engineering - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 337 Views
  • Uploaded on

Growing of Internet a permanent challenge for designers and network engineering Jiří Navrátil jiri @cesnet.cz European Future Networking Initiatives Workshop 22.2.2007 Amsterdam Introduction to EFNI workshop Internet expansion and consequences

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Growing of Internet a permanent challenge for designers and network engineering' - oshin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
growing of internet a permanent challenge for designers and network engineering

Growing of Interneta permanent challenge for designers and network engineering

Jiří Navrátil jiri@cesnet.cz

European Future Networking Initiatives Workshop22.2.2007 Amsterdam

introduction to efni workshop
Introduction to EFNI workshop
  • Internet expansion and consequences
  • Next generation of Internet (directions and supporting projects, FIND, GENI)
  • New terminology: Slicing, Virtualizaton, PlanetLab,VINI, etc.
  • New networking phenomena, concepts, approaches (DHT, P2P, CAN, ROS)
slide3

Partial visibility of the Internet from one router

(from the routing tables)

BGP table analysis

Source: http://www.caida.org/tools/measurement/skitter/

what are the problems of internet
What are the problems of Internet ?

Speed and capacity ?

In network backbones ?

In aggregation networks?

last mile ?

wireless (ad hoc networks, Wimax) ?

Access to the network ?

from individual machines (PC,MAC,Linux), Supercomputers, PDA, phones,

edge points

Distribution of services in requested quality to end users

to universities, offices (thousands of sites in each country)

to homes (millions of access points)

mobile users

Utilization of existing networks (Measurement and monitoring)

How do we know what users are doing and what they want,

what are the loads od individual segments of Internet?

Security aspects ?

Yes, definitely, all of these areas has own difficulties and

clear road map for future developments

However, they don’t threaten the system as whole

the r eal problems of ip world are in the principles
The real problems of IP world are in the principles
  • IP addresses ? Yes, before 1994 nearly collapsed. Problem postponed because of reusable private IP, NAT. It is reason why IPv6 is not so hot
  • Naming ?Yes, DNS still dominate and it has more and more problems

the other systems start to use own naming strategy based on GUID

  • Routing ?Yes, since 1989 BGP (protocol based purely on agreement of ISPs - routing policy). All other known protocols are unacceptable, technically problematic and they are used just locally,

many existing routes is not used, quality of routes is not under control

BGP4 ? Yes, Introducing AS was step to aggregation for routing purposes,

it helps to postpone problem with effectiveness of routing.

AND the # of ISP and # of AS growexponentially !

how internet grows
How Internet Grows

In history

Expectations

70000 routes

350

CIDR, PRIVATE IP, NAT bring slowdown of growing RT

(in 2000 - 980 millions of users ???)

slide7

How AS growingbrings problem to BGP

Grow in 94– 06

Source http://www.routeviews.org/dynamics

Remark.

Individual lines are prefixes (paths) from different peers

This is a reason why your engineers

needs more and more powerfull systems

Flapping = routes on- off-on-off …

http://sahara.cs.berkeley.edu/jan2004-retreat/slides/mcc_rootcause_sahara.ppt

more about the weaknesses of the internet
More about the weaknesses of the Internet

- performance bottlenecks at peering points

  • Ignores many existing alternate paths
  • Prevents sophisticated algorithms
  • Route selection uses fixed, simple metrics
  • Routing isn’t sensitive to path quality (See next examples)

The Internet is ill suited to mission-critical applications

Paxson (95-97) 3.3% of all routes has serious problems

Labovitz (97-00) 10% of routes available <95% of time

65% of routes available <99.9

3 minutes minimum detection time for failure

average recovery ~ 15 minutes

Chandra (01) 5% of faults last more than 2 hours 45 minutes

Wang (06) 80 %of problems on the path is caused by routing

ron resilient overlay networks
RON - Resilient overlay networks

David Andersen, Hari Balakrishnan,Frans Kaashoek, and Robert Morris

MIT Laboratory for Computer Science

http://nms.lcs.mit.edu/ron/

  • Measure all links between nodes
  • Compute path properties
  • Determine best route
  • Forward traffic over that path

Experimental testbed running for users,

Main problems

- not suitable for disruptive operation,

- low statistics of problematic cases (waiting for errors)

slide10

Menu

Traceroute analysis

Via Abilene

Via CALREN/CENIC

Example of routing changes (path SLAC – CALTECH)

ABwE Overview

slide11

com

TLD

TLD

ns

ns

ns

.cz

ns

ns

ns

ns

.cvut.

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

.fel.

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

.fjfi.

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

ns

Internet naming based on DNS

PROBLEM IS NOT ONLY TO HAVE NAME (registration)

But how TO HANDLE resolution (conversion from/to IP)

and UPDATE databases which are bigger and bigger

.hp.

Recursing requests

.ibm.

.nl

.de

.fs.cvut.cz

Most request is resolved on the lowest level

but not all data are available => Recursing requests

browsers

Remember: Each nice Web page can contain several resolutions !!

(reference to icon/picture/doc located somewhere in Internet) and for seeing it must be resolved !!

slide12

DNS - update

All these systems were designed for traffic loads that reflect

the rate and complexity of human activities

How DNS will react on machine-machine applications (crowlers, traffic reviewer,..)

How is robust, scalable, sensitive to the attacks and misconfigurations

What is the rate of DNS updates and big volume of data it represents ?

1-2 M updates/hour on root DNS

20 top ASes make 50 % updates (China, US, Spain)

97% updates is from WINDOWS machines

Wrong coordination between DHCP and DNS for private IP can creates

unwanted traffic and requests to global DNS.

This leakage is inappropriate from the traffic and also from the security

aspects.

REFERENCE CAIDA papers:

A.Broido, E.Nemeth, kc claffy, SPECTROSCOPY of Private DNS update Sources

A.Broido, H.Shang, M.Fomenkov, Y.Hyun, kc claffy, The Windows of Private DNS Updates

nsf find future internet design in 2005 as reaction to existing problems
NSF FIND “Future Internet Design”in 2005 as reaction to existing problems
  • Creating the Internet you want in 10,15 Years
  • The Internet which society TRUST
  • Support pervasive computing (from PDA to Supercomputing)
  • Connecting devices and users with all types communication channels from wireless to optical light paths
  • Enable accept further developments and innovations
slide17

Situation is getting worse

From: David Alderson CALTECH , NSF Find meeting, Dec. 2005

slide18

Larry Peterson Princeton University:

A Strategyfor Continually Reinventing Internet

(May 2005)

Why now ?

many architectional proposals ( look on the statistics RFC, papers, etc.)

research community is ready to making it real

Enabling technology

Infrastructure exists (NLR, Planetlab, .. GN2,.. }

HOW ?

Two paths for changes

Incremental

Clean-Slate (replace Internet with new architecture)

many problems on first path

(many limits, hard manage,, vulnerability, hostile)

there are Barriers to second path:

Internet ossificated, cannot be replaced

Inadequate validation of potential solutions

tesbed dilemma:

production testbed = incremental change

experimental testbed = no real users !

focus of find
Focus of FIND

On Reinvented Internet Architecture andnot on individual network technologies

Internet evolutioninfluenced by clean-slate approach

Alternate architecture(s) coexistwith the current Internet

Virtualization becomes the norm with plurality of architectures

New services and applications enabled

defined stages of research for 2007 and later
Defined Stages of Research for 2007 and Later

Architectures as they emerge will be made operational and tested

  • Simulation
  • Emulation
  • Run on a large-scale GENI facility

Experiments with new architectures at global scale

slide22

Peter A.Freeman NSFVICE

Jan 2006

?

?

2009

2007

Filling GAP (validate new arch. Under realistic conditions

Keep potential deployment in sight)

Work on existing experimental. infrastructure

Emulab front-end to PlanetLab

Experiments spanning some combination of…

Emulab + ORBIT + WAIL + PlanetLab

ViNI: Virtualized Network Infrastructure

PlanetLabslices on layer 2 networks

(NLR + Abilene)

Internet-in-a-Slice (Click + XORP)

slide23

Larry Peterson Princeton University:

A Strategyfor Continually Reinventing Internet

(May 2005)

Each architecture (service)

runs in own slice

Planetlab node as INGRESS

NLR as high-speed backbone

slide24

In “A Strategyfor Continually Reinventing Internet”

(May 2005, Larry Peterson)

NLR

NLR

NLR

NLR

slide25

Distribution of load and functionality in Hardware

Source: From GENI backbone working group

why virtual architectures
Why virtual architectures ?

The programs that should control many different entities in real time with complex timingoften multiplicatively same for different segments of the huge systems are rather complex.

You can separate the tasks into independent HW (computers) each responsible for part of the whole system).

The reason is not only the distribution of the load butalso distribution of complexity.

The computers are more and more powerful so they are ready to work in “pseudo parallel mode” and to accept some overhead.Application software is much simple.

The next step is to create more independent systems(virtual machine VM)

on one physical computer. Each VM can run one or more programs.

The complexity for writing and running application is much lower than

in original design

generalized packet filters

Packet

Packet

Packet

Default

filter 1

filter 2

filter

filter

n

L2 Switching

L2 Switching

Engine w/ARP

Engine w/ARP

Generalized Packet Filters
  • GPFs are the key to flexibility in this approach
    • Extends concept of “filters” normally found on routers
    • A relatively small number of GPFs can be used as building blocks for a large number of applications
      • Ideally, the database of GPFs precludes the writing of new code!
    • Supports flexible classification, computation, and actions
    • GPFs are executed in numeric order:

Source :http://sahara.cs.berkeley.edu/jan2004-retreat/index.html

http://sahara.cs.berkeley.edu/jan2004-retreat/slides/tsai_routervm_1-9-04.ppt

slide28

Source : http://sahara.cs.berkeley.edu/jan2004-retreat/index.html

http://sahara.cs.berkeley.edu/jan2004-retreat/slides/tsai_routervm_1-9-04.ppt

classify infer act

Ethernet

Forward

TCP/IP lookup

IP

Drop

Intrusion Detect

TCP

Route

NAT

HTTP

Load Balance

Store/Ret. State

iSCSI

Replace Fields

Error Detect

FCIP

Resize Pkt

Checksum

MPLS

Encrypt

Count/Tag

ATM

Compress

…?

…?

…?

Classify-Infer-Act
  • A server and router in “one”
    • Tight integration between packet processing and routing
    • High bandwidth (routers) and computation (servers)

Infer

Classify

Act

slide30

Group/class of applications

“G”

(voice)

“P”

(video)

(data)

“B”

(interactive gaming)

“Y”

Core network with classified application multilayers

“Slicing” SHARED IP layer in horizontal level

RN2

RN3

sublayer 1

RN1

RN4

RN5

l

l1

sublayer 2

Core network

RN1

RN4

l2

Different L2 allocation between RN,

different routing for

each L3 sub-layer

RN5

sunlayer 3

RN1

RN4

l3

RN5

RN = routernode

sublayer 4

RN1

RN4

RN5

l4

Different application packets

Different application packets

Edge node

Domain Z

Edge node

(BASED ON PNE ?)

Domain X

Questions: Who can create applicaton layer?

*jn*

slide31

Multi-user Java Environment.

A standard Java Virtual Machine is a multi-thread-enabled

but mono-application environment

Sun's Multi-tasking Virtual Machine runs several

Java applications, called isolates

The overlay is the single application that runs

in the JVM, but it allows several pseudo-applicationsn

run concurrently ontop of it.

JVM, ISOLATES etc.

http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/Programming/mvm/

slide32

APPLICATION FOR MILLIONS HOMES

Multi-user Java Environment.

IPTV

HDTV

VOD

INTERNET

Lastmile

Open Service Gateway

MULTISERVICE MULTIUSER

The overlay is the single application that runs

in the JVM, but it allows several pseudo-applicationsn

run concurrently ontop of it.

Gateway operator

Lastmile

VOD

Service providers

Open Service Gateway

The gateway operator, through the core service gateway,

acts much like a Unix root user. He allows users (service providers)

to launch their shell or execution environment (their virtual service gateway).

The core gateway runs services accessible to all users.

However, contrary to Unix root users, the core gateway

does not have access to service gateways' data, files, etc, since these

would belong to different, potentially competing companies.

Source: MUSE -NRIA

More details:http://perso.citi.insa-lyon.fr/sfrenot//publications/royonCBSE06vosgi.pdf

xen 3 0 architecture
Xen 3.0 Architecture

VM3

VM0

VM1

VM2

Device

Manager &

Control s/w

Unmodified

User

Software

Unmodified

User

Software

Unmodified

User

Software

GuestOS

(XenLinux)

GuestOS

(XenLinux)

GuestOS

(XenLinux)

Unmodified

GuestOS

(WinXP))

AGP

ACPI

PCI

Back-End

Back-End

SMP

Native

Device

Driver

Native

Device

Driver

Front-End

Device Drivers

Front-End

Device Drivers

VT-x

x86_32

x86_64

IA64

Virtual CPU

Virtual MMU

Control IF

Safe HW IF

Event Channel

Xen Virtual Machine Monitor

Hardware (SMP, MMU, physical memory, Ethernet, SCSI/IDE)

slide35

VMM

VMM

VMM

VMM

VS – Virtual server

Independent OS LINUX (BSD) running on VM,

with own administartion including root

with own file system and computation capability

Slice set of VS on different VM

node slice in planetlab
Node/Slice in PlanetLab

N10

N1

N3

N8

N2

N4

N7

N9

N6

SLICEA1(N3,N1,N2,N3,N4,N5,N6.N7,N8,N9)

N5

SLICEA2(N1,N5,N6,N4,N8)

SLICEA3(N1,N2,N7,N10

SLICEA4(N3,N6,N5,N4)

Node

App1

On each node can run more users (slices)

Each of them is running in own virtual system

One user can run more applications

SLICE

App2

App3

slide37

switch

wired

What is emulation?the ability to mimic another machine on your computer.

You can run the same programs that you would on whatever

the other machine is.

http://www.cs.utah.edu/flux/testbed-docs/emulab-dev-jan06.pdf