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    1. Seminar on Standards for English and Other Foreign Languages in APEC Economies

    3. New Zealands profile Parliamentary democracy in the South Pacific Ocean 1840 Treaty of Waitangi between British and Maori 1907 Dominion status mostly self-governing 1947 fully independent nation Political ties with Cook Islands, Niue and Tokelau Population: 4.2 million Area: 268,680 km Density: 15/km Major population sub-groups: European 77% (59% school) Maori 15% (22%) Asian 9% (8%) Pacific Islands 7% (9%) Official languages: English Maori (1987 Act) New Zealand Sign Language (2006 Act) Our form of government (parliamentary/participatory democracy ) is key to understanding the education system. Democratic principles underlie educational change, seen in the high level of participation and consultation with the public at large. The Treaty of Waitangi is significant to understanding the partnership with Maori as indigeneous peoples, and the preservation of their language, Maori. Ties with the Pacific Islands are important, and part of who we are as a nation. Population, area and density figures are helpful comparisons to make internationally. Our low population figures are usually a surprise. Our population diversity is a distinctive feature, now embraced, and poses many challenges, particularly in education, as each sub-grouping is also characterized by diversity. Languages with official status are important to know when considering the teaching and learning of languages in formal education. Majority speak English. Our form of government (parliamentary/participatory democracy ) is key to understanding the education system. Democratic principles underlie educational change, seen in the high level of participation and consultation with the public at large. The Treaty of Waitangi is significant to understanding the partnership with Maori as indigeneous peoples, and the preservation of their language, Maori. Ties with the Pacific Islands are important, and part of who we are as a nation. Population, area and density figures are helpful comparisons to make internationally. Our low population figures are usually a surprise. Our population diversity is a distinctive feature, now embraced, and poses many challenges, particularly in education, as each sub-grouping is also characterized by diversity. Languages with official status are important to know when considering the teaching and learning of languages in formal education. Majority speak English.

    4. New Zealand education policy Two strands: English-medium and Maori medium years 1 13. Two separate national curriculum statements: English-medium & Maori medium. Pre-school education not compulsory age 5 start school. Schools governed by Boards of Trustees local decision-making (flexibility). The New Zealand Curriculum sets the outcomes to be achieved. Its the business of schools to address the needs of their students to help them achieve the intended outcomes. Two strands: English-medium and Maori medium years 1 13. Two separate national curriculum statements: English-medium & Maori medium. Pre-school education not compulsory age 5 start school. Schools governed by Boards of Trustees local decision-making (flexibility). The New Zealand Curriculum sets the outcomes to be achieved. Its the business of schools to address the needs of their students to help them achieve the intended outcomes.

    5. New Zealands languages policy Two strands for education: English-medium and Maori-medium years 1 13. The dedication to a strand for teaching and learning through Maori, and the extensive publishing programme that supports it, is contributing to a renaissance of the Maori language and indigenous knowledge. The Maori strand offers the same learning areas as the national curriculum for English-medium schools but from a Maori perspective it is not a translation. Students can continue their education through Maori at wananga Maori universities. Assessment standards have been designed for (a) those learning through Maori; and (b) those learning Maori as a second language. Curriculum outcomes have been specified also for these two kinds of learners. Maori language was made an official language by an Act of Parliament in 1987. That official status is recognized in the New Zealand Curriculum 2007. All schools English-medium schools are expected to promote the use of Maori language and culture in their school and among their students. Consultation with Maori people is vital for this to happen well. 15% of Maori attend Maori medium schools.Two strands for education: English-medium and Maori-medium years 1 13. The dedication to a strand for teaching and learning through Maori, and the extensive publishing programme that supports it, is contributing to a renaissance of the Maori language and indigenous knowledge. The Maori strand offers the same learning areas as the national curriculum for English-medium schools but from a Maori perspective it is not a translation. Students can continue their education through Maori at wananga Maori universities. Assessment standards have been designed for (a) those learning through Maori; and (b) those learning Maori as a second language. Curriculum outcomes have been specified also for these two kinds of learners. Maori language was made an official language by an Act of Parliament in 1987. That official status is recognized in the New Zealand Curriculum 2007. All schools English-medium schools are expected to promote the use of Maori language and culture in their school and among their students. Consultation with Maori people is vital for this to happen well. 15% of Maori attend Maori medium schools.

    6. New Zealands languages policy Two strands for education: English-medium and Maori-medium years 1 13. The dedication to a strand for teaching and learning through Maori, and the extensive publishing programme that supports it, is contributing to a renaissance of the Maori language and indigenous knowledge. The Maori strand offers the same learning areas as the national curriculum for English-medium schools but from a Maori perspective it is not a translation. Students can continue their education through Maori at wananga Maori universities. Assessment standards have been designed for (a) those learning through Maori; and (b) those learning Maori as a second language. Curriculum outcomes have been specified also for these two kinds of learners. Maori language was made an official language by an Act of Parliament in 1987. That official status is recognized in the New Zealand Curriculum 2007. All schools English-medium schools are expected to promote the use of Maori language and culture in their school and among their students. Consultation with Maori people is vital for this to happen well. 15% of Maori attend Maori medium schools.Two strands for education: English-medium and Maori-medium years 1 13. The dedication to a strand for teaching and learning through Maori, and the extensive publishing programme that supports it, is contributing to a renaissance of the Maori language and indigenous knowledge. The Maori strand offers the same learning areas as the national curriculum for English-medium schools but from a Maori perspective it is not a translation. Students can continue their education through Maori at wananga Maori universities. Assessment standards have been designed for (a) those learning through Maori; and (b) those learning Maori as a second language. Curriculum outcomes have been specified also for these two kinds of learners. Maori language was made an official language by an Act of Parliament in 1987. That official status is recognized in the New Zealand Curriculum 2007. All schools English-medium schools are expected to promote the use of Maori language and culture in their school and among their students. Consultation with Maori people is vital for this to happen well. 15% of Maori attend Maori medium schools.

    7. New Zealands languages policy Learning another language has been optional and at school discretion. Language learning has been very much hit and miss, a mix of approaches, expectations, emphases, and skills development. Language teachers had been working mainly with other teachers of the same language, and (thought) they had nothing in common with teachers of other languages. Learning another language has been optional and at school discretion. Language learning has been very much hit and miss, a mix of approaches, expectations, emphases, and skills development. Language teachers had been working mainly with other teachers of the same language, and (thought) they had nothing in common with teachers of other languages.

    8. Approach to developing standards for languages learning Managing for outcomes implies continuous improvement of learning; clarity and agreement about direction; agreeing on expected results; gathering evidence about performance; making judgments about progress; adjusting as necessary. This implies continuing and close connections between curriculum specifications, assessment specifications and pedagogy: an important triangle. Step 1 for languages came with the opportunity to address that coherence in assessment specifications. Managing for outcomes implies continuous improvement of learning; clarity and agreement about direction; agreeing on expected results; gathering evidence about performance; making judgments about progress; adjusting as necessary. This implies continuing and close connections between curriculum specifications, assessment specifications and pedagogy: an important triangle. Step 1 for languages came with the opportunity to address that coherence in assessment specifications.

    9. Step 1 standards-based assessment The need to measure the achievement of curriculum outcomes ( now specified) led to a second major educational change for New Zealand: Development of standards-based assessment for senior secondary qualifications in the last three years of schooling: years 11, 12 and 13 (Levels 1 3 on the new National Qualifications Framework) Teachers of all languages were talking to each other and realized they had a lot in common. The achievement standards were registered for each language, but retained their generic nature. Consistency in assessment requirements across languages had been achieved.The need to measure the achievement of curriculum outcomes ( now specified) led to a second major educational change for New Zealand: Development of standards-based assessment for senior secondary qualifications in the last three years of schooling: years 11, 12 and 13 (Levels 1 3 on the new National Qualifications Framework) Teachers of all languages were talking to each other and realized they had a lot in common. The achievement standards were registered for each language, but retained their generic nature. Consistency in assessment requirements across languages had been achieved.

    10. Languages and assessment This is an example of an achievement standard on the generic framework. It shows the subfield as Languages and the domain as Spanish. This makes it understandable to Spanish teachers and Spanish learners, but it is no different from the standard for French, or the other languages. The standard is supplemented with Explanatory Note, definition of terms, etc. for the utmost clarification and transparency. This is an example of an achievement standard on the generic framework. It shows the subfield as Languages and the domain as Spanish. This makes it understandable to Spanish teachers and Spanish learners, but it is no different from the standard for French, or the other languages. The standard is supplemented with Explanatory Note, definition of terms, etc. for the utmost clarification and transparency.

    11. Step 2 Curriculum standards The national curriculum (1993) had set the focus on outcomes. Each learning area developed a curriculum that specified outcomes (it took 10 years). Teachers were implementing a new curriculum every two years. Government paused the speed of curriculum change. A Curriculum Stocktake took place, with national and international critique. Text The Curriculum Stocktake (2000-2002) reviewed the 1993 New Zealand Curriculum Framework and its associated curriculum statements. What did this mean for learning languages? The status of learning languages in the New Zealand curriculum was reviewed. Recommendations included: Learning a language other than English should be a separate learning area A generic overarching framework that specified outcomes for learning languages in schooling should be developed. This work took place within New Zealand Curriculum Project 2003-2007.The national curriculum (1993) had set the focus on outcomes. Each learning area developed a curriculum that specified outcomes (it took 10 years). Teachers were implementing a new curriculum every two years. Government paused the speed of curriculum change. A Curriculum Stocktake took place, with national and international critique. Text The Curriculum Stocktake (2000-2002) reviewed the 1993 New Zealand Curriculum Framework and its associated curriculum statements. What did this mean for learning languages? The status of learning languages in the New Zealand curriculum was reviewed. Recommendations included: Learning a language other than English should be a separate learning area A generic overarching framework that specified outcomes for learning languages in schooling should be developed. This work took place within New Zealand Curriculum Project 2003-2007.

    12. Step 2 Curriculum standards Standards-based assessment had been developed and was about to be introduced. There was now the opportunity to develop curriculum standards. The serious question was: what would the outcomes be for curriculum levels that would be meaningful to teachers, students, and anyone wanting to know what a student was able to do as a result of their learning? And how transportable would this information be, especially internationally? The process put in place to consider these questions came up with the answers. The referencing to the Common European Frameworks global scale helps language teachers and language learners know what they want to achieve, and offers them progressive steps to achieve it. The expectations for the level of language expertise attainable through schooling needed clarification, and this was the way to do just that. PROCESS TO DEVELOP CURRICULUM STANDARDS (2003-2007) Leadership from the Ministry of Education Key advisory panel of 5 New Zealand academics + 5 writers Broader reference group of 20 education sector representatives Ongoing consultation Commissioned papers for an evidence-base for decision-making International critique of the developing work. OUTCOME Set of generic achievement objectives Levels 1 8 , banded into four groupings. The four groupings are linked to the proficiency descriptors of The Common Reference Levels (global scale) of the Council of Europes Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The Common European Framework has an extensive research base, and includes languages of different types and origins. Its global scale identifies 6 levels of proficiency A1 - A2 - B1 - B2 - C1 - C2. Level B1 was identified as the highest level that could be aimed for in New Zealand schooling.Standards-based assessment had been developed and was about to be introduced. There was now the opportunity to develop curriculum standards. The serious question was: what would the outcomes be for curriculum levels that would be meaningful to teachers, students, and anyone wanting to know what a student was able to do as a result of their learning? And how transportable would this information be, especially internationally? The process put in place to consider these questions came up with the answers. The referencing to the Common European Frameworks global scale helps language teachers and language learners know what they want to achieve, and offers them progressive steps to achieve it. The expectations for the level of language expertise attainable through schooling needed clarification, and this was the way to do just that. PROCESS TO DEVELOP CURRICULUM STANDARDS (2003-2007) Leadership from the Ministry of Education Key advisory panel of 5 New Zealand academics + 5 writers Broader reference group of 20 education sector representatives Ongoing consultation Commissioned papers for an evidence-base for decision-making International critique of the developing work. OUTCOME Set of generic achievement objectives Levels 1 8 , banded into four groupings. The four groupings are linked to the proficiency descriptors of The Common Reference Levels (global scale) of the Council of Europes Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The Common European Framework has an extensive research base, and includes languages of different types and origins. Its global scale identifies 6 levels of proficiency A1 - A2 - B1 - B2 - C1 - C2. Level B1 was identified as the highest level that could be aimed for in New Zealand schooling.

    14. Step 2 Curriculum standards The learners ability to communicate is paramount. Communication is therefore the main strand and the one that is assessed. This Communication strand is supported by two further strands, the Language Knowledge strand and the Cultural Knowledge strand. These two strands are directed specifically at developing the linguistic and cultural awareness and knowledge needed for communicative competence. The achievement objectives are generic in order to encompass all languages that may be offered for learning in schools. Language-specific curriculum guidelines offer more detailed information relevant to the language, culture and communication needs of that language. The intended outcomes in the Communication strand are aligned to the key competencies described in the New Zealand Curriculum (2007) as important capabilities for living and lifelong learning for all New Zealanders. .The key competencies are: thinking; using language, symbols and texts; managing self; relating to others; and participating and contributing. Learning languages contributes to the development of these competencies. The learners ability to communicate is paramount. Communication is therefore the main strand and the one that is assessed. This Communication strand is supported by two further strands, the Language Knowledge strand and the Cultural Knowledge strand. These two strands are directed specifically at developing the linguistic and cultural awareness and knowledge needed for communicative competence. The achievement objectives are generic in order to encompass all languages that may be offered for learning in schools. Language-specific curriculum guidelines offer more detailed information relevant to the language, culture and communication needs of that language. The intended outcomes in the Communication strand are aligned to the key competencies described in the New Zealand Curriculum (2007) as important capabilities for living and lifelong learning for all New Zealanders. .The key competencies are: thinking; using language, symbols and texts; managing self; relating to others; and participating and contributing. Learning languages contributes to the development of these competencies.

    15. Step 3 Effective teaching (pedagogy) Education systems are about improvement. Improving student outcomes requires making outcomes clearer to teachers and students. That had been achieved for learning languages. Improving student outcomes requires clarifying expectations for learning for parents/caregivers and wider community so they can help too. That has now been achieved with the New Zealand Curriculum (2007) and the generic set of standards for Learning Languages benchmarked internationally. Improving student outcomes also requires enabling the intended outcomes to be achieved outcomes, and this requires a focus on pedagogy. (Iterative) Best Evidence Syntheses In 2003 the New Zealand Ministry of Education produced a best evidence synthesis: Quality Teaching for Diverse Students: Equity of outcomes for diverse learners is a central construct Evidence of pedagogy that linked to improved student learning was paramount The best evidence synthesis identified key characteristics of teachers/teaching that enabled improvements in learning. What did this mean for learning languages? It was also important to find out what the evidence was for improving the learning of languages through classroom instruction. The Ministry therefore commissioned a similar synthesis: Instructed Second Language Acquisition - A Literature Review (R. Ellis, University of Auckland, 2005). That review came up with 10 research-based principles for effective teaching of languages. A set of Case Studies tested the principles in practice, and provides classroom observation instruments that can be used in a range of ways, including peer observation, for teacher professional learning, and incorporating best evidence into their pedagogy. Education systems are about improvement. Improving student outcomes requires making outcomes clearer to teachers and students. That had been achieved for learning languages. Improving student outcomes requires clarifying expectations for learning for parents/caregivers and wider community so they can help too. That has now been achieved with the New Zealand Curriculum (2007) and the generic set of standards for Learning Languages benchmarked internationally. Improving student outcomes also requires enabling the intended outcomes to be achieved outcomes, and this requires a focus on pedagogy. (Iterative) Best Evidence Syntheses In 2003 the New Zealand Ministry of Education produced a best evidence synthesis: Quality Teaching for Diverse Students: Equity of outcomes for diverse learners is a central construct Evidence of pedagogy that linked to improved student learning was paramount The best evidence synthesis identified key characteristics of teachers/teaching that enabled improvements in learning. What did this mean for learning languages? It was also important to find out what the evidence was for improving the learning of languages through classroom instruction. The Ministry therefore commissioned a similar synthesis: Instructed Second Language Acquisition - A Literature Review (R. Ellis, University of Auckland, 2005). That review came up with 10 research-based principles for effective teaching of languages. A set of Case Studies tested the principles in practice, and provides classroom observation instruments that can be used in a range of ways, including peer observation, for teacher professional learning, and incorporating best evidence into their pedagogy.

    16. Effective teaching of languages These principles provide the best evidence from the research about works for most students to help them acquire the skills they need. The principles are not to tell teachers what they ought to do. As Ellis reminds us, the principles are to be viewed as provisional specifications best operationalised and tried out by teachers in their own teaching contexts. In that way, teachers have a set of research-based pedagogical standards, so to speak, which helps them talk about their teaching with each other, and have a common reference. Fore teaching to be effective, improvement in student learning must be the outcome. These principles provide the best evidence from the research about works for most students to help them acquire the skills they need. The principles are not to tell teachers what they ought to do. As Ellis reminds us, the principles are to be viewed as provisional specifications best operationalised and tried out by teachers in their own teaching contexts. In that way, teachers have a set of research-based pedagogical standards, so to speak, which helps them talk about their teaching with each other, and have a common reference. Fore teaching to be effective, improvement in student learning must be the outcome.

    17. New Zealands story What has been achieved has been standards-based assessment for languages on a generic framework; internationally referenced curriculum level standards; and the best research-based evidence of what works in classroom situations for effective language learning expressed as principles (standards). These are the key, and inter-related steps, for ensuring and monitoring improvements in student learning outcomes. Assessment, curriculum and pedagogy require continuous work and support to ensure consistency, coherence and ongoing incorporation of best evidence for what really works. STEP ONE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS STEP TWO CURRICULUM STANDARDS STEP THREE PEDAGOGY STANDARDS A continuous cycle of review is needed to ensure alignments, consistency, and incorporation of new evidence. What has been achieved has been standards-based assessment for languages on a generic framework; internationally referenced curriculum level standards; and the best research-based evidence of what works in classroom situations for effective language learning expressed as principles (standards). These are the key, and inter-related steps, for ensuring and monitoring improvements in student learning outcomes. Assessment, curriculum and pedagogy require continuous work and support to ensure consistency, coherence and ongoing incorporation of best evidence for what really works. STEP ONE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS STEP TWO CURRICULUM STANDARDS STEP THREE PEDAGOGY STANDARDS A continuous cycle of review is needed to ensure alignments, consistency, and incorporation of new evidence.

    18. Languages education strategy What has been achieved has been standards-based assessment for languages on a generic framework; internationally referenced curriculum level standards; and the best research-based evidence of what works in classroom situations for effective language learning expressed as principles (standards). These are the key, and inter-related steps, for ensuring and monitoring improvements in student learning outcomes. Assessment, curriculum and pedagogy require continuous work and support to ensure consistency, coherence and ongoing incorporation of best evidence for what really works. STEP ONE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS STEP TWO CURRICULUM STANDARDS STEP THREE PEDAGOGY STANDARDS A continuous cycle of review is needed to ensure alignments, consistency, and incorporation of new evidence. What has been achieved has been standards-based assessment for languages on a generic framework; internationally referenced curriculum level standards; and the best research-based evidence of what works in classroom situations for effective language learning expressed as principles (standards). These are the key, and inter-related steps, for ensuring and monitoring improvements in student learning outcomes. Assessment, curriculum and pedagogy require continuous work and support to ensure consistency, coherence and ongoing incorporation of best evidence for what really works. STEP ONE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS STEP TWO CURRICULUM STANDARDS STEP THREE PEDAGOGY STANDARDS A continuous cycle of review is needed to ensure alignments, consistency, and incorporation of new evidence.

    19. What has been achieved has been standards-based assessment for languages on a generic framework; internationally referenced curriculum level standards; and the best research-based evidence of what works in classroom situations for effective language learning expressed as principles (standards). These are the key, and inter-related steps, for ensuring and monitoring improvements in student learning outcomes. Assessment, curriculum and pedagogy require continuous work and support to ensure consistency, coherence and ongoing incorporation of best evidence for what really works. STEP ONE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS STEP TWO CURRICULUM STANDARDS STEP THREE PEDAGOGY STANDARDS A continuous cycle of review is needed to ensure alignments, consistency, and incorporation of new evidence. What has been achieved has been standards-based assessment for languages on a generic framework; internationally referenced curriculum level standards; and the best research-based evidence of what works in classroom situations for effective language learning expressed as principles (standards). These are the key, and inter-related steps, for ensuring and monitoring improvements in student learning outcomes. Assessment, curriculum and pedagogy require continuous work and support to ensure consistency, coherence and ongoing incorporation of best evidence for what really works. STEP ONE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS STEP TWO CURRICULUM STANDARDS STEP THREE PEDAGOGY STANDARDS A continuous cycle of review is needed to ensure alignments, consistency, and incorporation of new evidence.