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Segmentation Across Cultures(?). PEPSI IN TAIWAN “Come alive with Pepsi Generation” means “Pepsi will bring your ancestors back from dead” KFC IN CHINA “Finger lickin’ good” means “eat your fingers off” GM IN SOUTH AMERICA Chevy Nova means “it won’t go” SCHWEPPES IN ITALY

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segmentation across cultures
Segmentation Across Cultures(?)

PEPSI IN TAIWAN

“Come alive with Pepsi Generation”

means “Pepsi will bring your ancestors back from dead”

KFC IN CHINA

“Finger lickin’ good” means “eat your fingers off”

GM IN SOUTH AMERICA

Chevy Nova means “it won’t go”

SCHWEPPES IN ITALY

“Tonic water” translated to “Toilet water”

COLGATE IN FRANCE

“Cue” brand toothpaste -- “Cue” is a notorious porno mag

stp marketing
STP Marketing

1) Segment - identify variables, develop profiles

2) Target - evaluate attractiveness of each segment, select targets

3) Position - select how want consumers to perceive product

market segmentation s
Market Segmentation (“S”)
  • Identifying groups of people with similar needs and characteristics
  • Aggregating these groups into larger segments according to their mutual interests in the product
effective segmentation
Effective Segmentation:

1) Measurability - can you measure segment?

2) Accessibility - can segment be reached?

3) Profitability - what’s the segment’s potential?

types of segmentation
Types of Segmentation
  • Geographic
    • Regions
    • Population size
    • Climate
    • Retail trading area
types of segmentation1
Types of Segmentation
  • Demographic
      • Age
      • Gender
      • Family size/life cycle
      • Income
      • Occupation
      • Education
      • Race
    • Geodemographics -- PRIZM

http://www.claritasexpress.com

demographic trends
Demographic Trends
  • 1) Changing families
    • later marriage
    • fewer kids
    • higher divorce
    • working spouses
    • aging parents
  • 2) Nonfamily households
  • 3) Geographic shifts
  • 4) Higher education
  • 5) Ethnic population
emerging markets
Emerging Markets
  • People of Color
    • Buying power has doubled in last decade
    • Nearly 1 in 3 claims ethnic identity
    • Companies struggling to understand and develop multiethnic awareness and advertising know-how
types of segmentation2
Types of Segmentation

Psychographic:

VALS

Personality

“GeoVALS”

  • http://www.sric-bi.com/VALS/geovals.shtml
vals 2 typology

Abundant resources

Actualizers

Action

oriented

Principle

oriented

Status

oriented

Fulfilled

Achievers

Experiencers

Makers

Strivers

Believers

Strugglers

Minimal resources

VALS 2 Typology
  • Exhibit 5-4
  • See Page 155

Slide 26

types of segmentation3
Types of Segmentation
  • Behavioristic
    • Purchase occasion
    • Benefits sought
    • User status
    • Usage rate
target marketing t
Target Marketing (“T)
  • Decide which segments offer the most potential (profit!)
  • Design products and marketing activities toward target.
product positioning
Product Positioning

“It’s not what you do to the product, but what you do to the mind!”

positioning
Positioning

1) Find a difference -- USP:

a. Important

b. Distinctive

c. Superior

d. Communicable

e. Preemptive

f. Affordable

g. Profitable

positioning cont d
Positioning Cont’d

2) Pick a benefit:

One, two, or three?

3) Choose a positioning approach:

a. Product attribute

b. Price/quality

c. Use or application

d. Product user

e. Product class

f. Competition

g. Status

h. Cultural symbols

advertising research

Informal

Formal

Advertising Research

Creative Concept Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

Pretesting

Postesting

How much do we know?

advertising research1
Advertising Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

  • Situation Analysis
    • What are industry trends? Are they changing?
    • What is the competitive environment?
    • Who are the category leaders?
    • Who is our competition?
    • Who do we want to compete with?
    • How are others positioned? How are we positioned?
    • Identify others’ advertising strategies?
advertising research2
Advertising Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

Situation Analysis

Target Audience Analysis

  • General Consumer Trends
    • What changes can be seen in consumer lifestyles?
  • Product Specific Analyses
    • What are the characteristics of the consumers?
    • How do we examine these groups?
    • What are the opportunities within each segment?
advertising research3
Advertising Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

Situation Analysis

Target Audience Analysis

Media Research

  • Competitive media
  • Where can we get our message seen?
  • What media should be used?
advertising research4
Advertising Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

Secondary Research

Collected for another purpose

by someone else

  • S
  • W
  • O
  • T

trengths

eaknesses

pportunities

hreats

Primary Research

Collected for a specific purpose

by person with problem

advertising research5
Advertising Research

Creative Concept Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

Pretesting

Postesting

Understanding how the consumer interacts with the product

Brand Positioning

Communication Testing

  • determine the strengths and weaknesses from the consumer’s perspective
advertising research6
Advertising Research

Creative Concept Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

Pretesting

Postesting

  • Copy Testing
    • Making sure the ad is received as intended
advertising research7
Advertising Research

Creative Concept Research

Advertising

Strategy Research

Pretesting

Posttesting

  • Campaign Tracking

Assesses the impact of the current strategy

  • To what extent did we achieve our objectives?
  • What was the extent of attitude change in the target audience?
  • What extent did our message reach the desired levels of exposure?
primary research
Primary Research
  • Qualitative Research
  • Quantitative Research
  • understanding how consumers feel from their perspective.
  • quantifying (putting into numbers) the variables under investigation.
qu al itative
Qualitative

Quantitative

vs.

Focus Groups

& Interviews

Surveys &

Experiments

Explain

Describe

Why? How?

What?

Subjective

Objective

Flexible

Controlled

Few

Many

qualitative research methods
Qualitative Research Methods
  • Focus Groups
  • Projective Techniques
  • In-depth Interviews
quantitative research methods
Quantitative Research Methods
  • Observation
  • Surveys
  • Experiments
validity versus reliability
Validity Versus Reliability

Validity

  • The degree to which we are measuring what we think we are measuring

Reliability

  • The degree to which a measurement can be repeated
how to be a consumer detective
How to be a Consumer Detective:
  • 1) Watch first, ask questions later!
    • Learn from the experts -- detective movies
    • Put yourself in a situation where you never have to ask a question.
    • Watch for the little things
      • How do you know when two people are in love?
      • How can you tell if someone likes/dislikes your food?
consumer detective training
Consumer Detective Training:
  • 2) Little clues reveal big insights!
    • A major university observed student paths before putting in sidewalks
    • National children’s museum found out which exhibits were most popular by looking at fingerprints
    • Cellular phone company used list of people with vanity plates for direct marketing
    • Market researchers hang out in malls, salons, record stores, concerts to watch how teens dress, what they do, how they buy.
detective exercise
Detective Exercise:
  • 1) Get on public transportation or go to public place and deduce what the person next to you does for a living.
  • 2) Go to a restaurant you’ve never been to before and discern who they are trying to attract.
  • 3) Go to a mall and figure out what it is in a store that makes customers feel comfortable. Are there any stores that turn customers off?
  • 4) Go to someone’s house and deduce what their interests are and their lifestyle. You can do this visiting your client’s office, too.
http www adcritic com content bmw bond villain training html
http://www.adcritic.com/content/bmw-bond-villain-training.htmlhttp://www.adcritic.com/content/bmw-bond-villain-training.html
building relationships chapter 7
Building Relationships – Chapter 7
  • “Customers, not products, are the lifeblood of the business.”
relationship marketing
Relationship Marketing
  • Creating, maintaining, and enhancing long-term relationships with customers and other stakeholders that result in exchanges of information and other things of mutual value.
  • STAKEHOLDERS:
    • Employees, stockholders, financial community, press, etc.
slide39
Why?
  • 1) Cost of lost customers
  • 2) Cost of acquiring new customers
  • 3) Value of loyal customers
relationships communication
Relationships  Communication
  • Customers and organizations must communicate with each other to be successful.
  • IMC!
imc defined
IMC DEFINED:
  • Process of building and reinforcing mutually profitable relationships with employees, customers and other stakeholders by developing and coordinating a strategic communications program that enables them to have a constructive encounter with the company/brand through a variety of media and other contacts. WHEW!
in other words
In other words:
  • SYNERGY!
  • The whole > sum of all parts.
  • Recognize the many ways customers come in to contact with brand.
the integration triangle
The Integration Triangle

Say

  • Exhibit 7-5

Planned

messages

Do

Confirm

Product,

Service

messages

Unplanned

messages

Slide 43

it s not just about ads
It’s not just about ads:
  • Sponsorship –
    • brand name on a piece of entertainment
    • With no involvement
  • Product Placement –
    • plugging products into movie/TV show
    • Eat a snickers on Survivor
    • Gap store in Minority Report ($25 mill!)
not just about ads cont d
Not just about ads (cont’d)
  • Branded Content
    • Creating an entertainment product to reflect a brand’s image
    • Brand isn’t center of production
    • Company now involved in production
      • Nike’s Road to Paris documentary
      • Musical, Ball, on broadway
      • BMW movies on line.
start with basics plan the ad campaign
Start with Basics: Plan the Ad Campaign
  • Know what advertising can/can’t do!
  • Advertising is only a PART of marketing
  • Marketingsales
  • Advertising  communicates
  • “Marketing SELLS, advertising TELLS”
ad objectives must be
Ad objectives must be:
  • 1) communication oriented
  • 2) time bounded
  • 3) targeted
advertising objectives
Advertising Objectives

Specify where the advertiser wants to be with respect to:

Action

Desire

Conviction

Comprehension

Awareness

5 customers

25

50

80

100 people

Specific, quantitative, realistic goals to be achieved in a specified period of time

the ad strategy blends elements of creative mix
The Ad strategy blends elements of Creative mix:
  • 1) the target audience
  • 2) the product concept Kim-Lord grid
  • 3) the media
  • 4) the message
kim lord grid
Kim-Lord Grid

Effective involvement (feel)

Low

High

• Car

College •

• Shampoo

High

• Video camera

Skin lotion

Motor oil

Cognitive involvement (Think)

Greeting card •

Laundry detergent

Low

• Pizza

Paper towels

• Bread

Slide 50

what s it gonna cost
What’s it gonna cost?
  • IRS, bean counters  current expense
  • Actually investment in FUTURE sales
  • Advertising’s power is cumulative, long-range, and reinforcing.
common methods for setting ad budgets
Common methods for setting ad budgets:
  • 1) percent of sales
  • 2) Market share/share of voice
  • 3) Objective/task
  • 4) Competitive parity