Relevant Experiences in Water-related Disaster Reduction of the Typhoon Committee and Panel on Tropical Cyclones BRIEFING NOTE by Ti Le-Huu Water and Mineral Resources Section ESCAP
POINTS OF DISCUSSION • Regional context • Past achievements • Strengthening Cooperation on Disaster Prevention and Preparedness of the Typhoon Committee • Ongoing efforts of the Panel on Tropical Cyclones • Conclusions and recommendations
Context of ESCAP’s Approach • ESCAP established Bureau of Flood Control in 1949. • Regional context in perspectives: diversity in social and economic conditions. • Comparative advantage of ESCAP: regional/subregional approach to policy and program development for sustainable socio-economic development.
Related ESCAP’s Efforts • Towards a process of regional collaboration: (1) subregional mechanisms, and (2) technical cooperation programs. • Active sub-regional network: (1) Typhoon Committee, (2) Panel on Tropical Cyclones, and (3) Mekong River Commission. • Emphasis on capacity building (seminars, workshops and publication of guidelines) and active cooperation with other international organizations.
Typhoon Committee • A sustainable subregional network for effective cooperation in natural disaster reduction • A good network of modern facilities and capable personnel: to support flood preparedness and warnings • Established in 1968 and Membership has increased from 7 to now 14:Cambodia; China; DPR of Korea; Hong Kong, China; Japan; Macau; Malaysia; Lao PDR; Philippines; Republic of Korea; Singapore; Thailand; United States; Viet Nam
Panel on Tropical Cyclones • A vehicle to promote effective subregional cooperation in natural disaster reduction • Forum for sustainable transfer of technology and know-how - including flood control and management • Established in 1972 and membership has increased from 6 to 8: Bangladesh; India; Maldives; Myanmar; Oman; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; and Thailand
Components of TC and PTC • Meteorological component • Hydrological component • Disaster Prevention and Preparedness • Training, and • Research
Past Major TC Activities (1) • (1) Typhoon operational experiment program (TOPEX) started late 1970s, completed 1984. • (2) Special Experiment Concerning Typhoon Recurvature and Unusual Movement (SPECTRUM) as a continuation of TOPEX. • TOPEX included international cooperation in the reliable collection and prompt exchange of observational data, and an operational test of the functioning of the various systems used for typhoon analysis, forecasting and warning.
Past Major TC Activities (2) • TOPEX was an exercise to test effectiveness of the system built up over more than a decade for flood warnings, typhoon warnings and dissemination of information to the public. • For TOPEX, an International Experiment Centre (IEC) was set up at J M A in Tokyo, manned by scientists from the members. • From TOPEX, Reports of Synoptic Interpretation of Cloud Data from MetSat are regularly provided by JMA to members • TOPEX led to Typhoon Operational Manual
Recent TC strengthening efforts • Application of strategic planning to TC cooperation • Consolidating efforts in research: TRCG and Development of Best-Track Data Set • Strengthening cooperation in Hydrological and Disaster Prevention and Preparedness (DPP): ESCAP Comprehensive Review
TC Strategic Plan - VISION • Provide high quality tropical cyclone forecasts and warnings(by highly trained professionals using best technology to mitigate the effects of tropical cyclone disasters,) • Obtain through effective tropical cyclone disaster mitigation and water resource actionsmaximum humanitarian, social, and economic benefits to achieve sustainable development, and • Derive maximum benefits to provide the high quality forecasts and warnings and effective mitigation through combining resources
ESCAP SURVEY REPORT Introduction 1. Context and design of the survey a.Context of the survey b. Main elements of the survey 2. Summary of findings 3. Conclusions
MAIN SURVEY ELEMENTS • To understand perception of TC Members on various issues related to typhoons; • To identify existing and potential benefits from regional cooperation; • To assess readiness of the Members to make maximum benefits from the TC cooperation; • To identify preferred modalities of cooperation and requirements for priority activities.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS a. Composition of responses b. Impacts of typhoons c. Perception of an effective DPP process d. Perception of an effective hydrological programme e. Expected benefits from TC cooperation f. Capacity of Members to maximize cooperation benefits g. TC cooperation strengthening priority h. The findings & ESCAP’s ongoing effort i. Overall remarks
COMPOSITION OF RESPONSES • 31 responses received (30 by 30-4-01) from 13 Members. • 26 responses from national agencies, 3 universities and 1 NGO; • 27 dealing with meteo-hydrological activities and 19 with DPP.
IMPACTS OF TYPHOONS • Order of impacts: floods, strong winds, land slides, storm surges. • Annual damage by typhoons varies from $5.5 million in Hong Kong, China to $1.96 billion in Japan. • Benefits from typhoons: 50% of annual rainfall in Philippines. Good for water storage, agriculture including fishery, environmental management and other uses such as hydropower and navigation.
PRIORITY ELEMENTS OF DPP PROCESS • Management process: data collection, forecasting and warnings. • Capacity building process: forecasting technology, communication network. • Institutional development process: inter-sectoral coordination.
CORE MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS • Data collection (11/13) and forecasting and warning (11/13) • Policies and strategies development (8/13) and financial resources mobilization (8/13) • Awareness, communications and structural measures (7/13)
CORE CAPACITY BUILDING ELEMENTS • Forecasting technology (9/13) and basic communication network (9/13) • Basic network development (7/13), core human resources development (7/13), advanced monitoring technology (7/13), advanced communication systems (7/13) and telemetering system (7/13).
NATIONAL PRIORITIES OF HYDROLOGICAL COMPONENT • National development plan and national water policy and strategy • Flood management strategies • Integrated basin management and national disaster reduction plan .
REGIONAL PRIORITIES OF HYDROLOGICAL COMPONENT • Forecasting operation systems, • Hydrological and water resources data collection , • Modelling and forecasting systems, and hazard monitoring network
STRATEGIC ACTIVITIES OF TC COOPERATION • Typhoon tracking • Weather forecasts • Forecasting operations • Satellite maps and forecasting techniques • Fund mobilization • Technical assistance
CORE ELEMENTS OF COOPERATION STRENGTHENING • Forecasting technology • Communication network • Public information and education, policies and strategies development and network development
PRIORITY AREAS FOR TC COOPERATION • Public information and education • Policies and strategies development and institutional coordination • Network development and communication network • Integrated basin management
PRIORITY MODALITIES OF TC COOPERATION • Workshops/seminar and development of manuals and guidelines • Technical cooperation among developing countries, TCDC
PRIORITY AREAS FOR FOLLOW-UP ACTION • Forecasting technology • Public information and education • Institutional development • Network development and communication network
Identification of Priority Themes for TC Cooperation and Follow-up Action
CONTEXT OF PRIORITY THEMES ON TC COOPERATION • The Typhoon Committee was established to enhance regional cooperation to deal with typhoons. • Typhoons have the potential for hazards and disasters but also for large benefits • This perception of typhoons requires an integrated approach to water resources Management and cooperation
FLOOD FORECASTING PROCESS • Data collection and monitoring system • Design of forecasting operation system • Operation forecasting techniques • Communication network • Integration into decision making ...within the context of Integrated Water Resources Management
PARTICIPATION IN THE WORKSHOP(Jointly organized by: ESCAP / RID / MLIT / TCS at UNCC, 21 – 24 August 2001, Bangkok, Thailand) • The Workshop was attended by 57 participants from 11 TC Members • Six experts from WMO, MRCS, TCS, AIT and ADPC
1- YEAR TIME FRAME • Development of guidelines for the Dam Operation in relation to flood forecasting • On-The-Job Training on Flood Forecasting between TC members • Extension of flood forecasting systems to selected river basin.(CHINA)
3-YEAR TIME FRAME • Pilot Project on the preparation of Inundation and Water-related Hazard Maps(Japan) • Project on the evaluation and improvement of operational flood forecasting system focusing on model performance(China & RoK) • Pilot project on the establishment of a community-based flood forecasting system (Malaysia)
5-YEAR TIME FRAME • Pilot project on the establishment of flash-flood warning system (including debris flow and landslides) (Japan) • Improvement of hydrological products in response to user needs (Philippines) • Project on the evaluation and improvement of hydrological instruments and telecommunication equipment (China)
EFFORTS AND OPPORTUNITIES TO STRENGTHEN COOPERATION AMONG PANEL MEMBERSbased on initial discussions between ESCAP, WMO and other partners
MAJORTCPACTIVITIES • Establish Coordinated Technical Plan which led to effective exchange of data for better flood forecasting • Establish the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre(RSMC) in Delhi • Publish Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea • Establishment of an international Storm Surge Project to integrate activities of all the five components for better disaster prevention and preparedness
Major Decisions at 29th Session • Establishment of a Working Group to apply strategic planning to reformulate its Coordinated Technical Plan • Adopt the theme for its 30th session in 2003: “Tropical cyclone-related disasters and poverty alleviation in the Panel Area” • Request ESCAP, WMO and other interested donors to undertake a comprehensive review aiming at strengthening cooperation on water-related disaster reduction in 2002.
Related Activities of ESCAP • Technical support • Advisory services on formulation of policies and strategies on flood mitigation and preparedness • Organization of training seminars • TCDC
Related Activities of WMO • Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) • WHYCOS initiative in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) Region • Flood Day at Third World Water Forum in 2003
Other Related Activities • Cooperation between Typhoon Committee and Panel on Tropical Cyclones • Cooperation with WWF-3 • Cooperation with ADPC • Other collaboration programmes: GWP, FAO
CONCLUSIONS • Regional cooperation to minimize negative impacts and to enhance beneficial effects of tropical cyclones has gained increased momentum in the region • It is important to take advantage of the increased attention on flood mitigation and preparedness to further strengthen cooperation of these subregional networks